Setting up a Share Using POSIX ACLs
On every Samba host you can, as on any MS Windows OS, share a folder to make it accessible for other users. There's no difference if this host is a Samba Active Directory Domain Controller, a Domain Member or a Standalone server. File shares can be setup in two ways: To be managed from Windows using Windows tools and ACLs or completely via smb.conf parameters and POSIX ACLs. The latter is described in this documentation.
Important note: Samba Active Directory Domain Controllers have extended ACL support enabled globally, to enable management of share permissions and ACLs via Windows!
Execute bit on files
Prior to Samba 4.0, the execution bit of files was not checked. This means that users could execute a file (*.exe, *.bat, etc.) on a share, even if the x-bit was not set. In Samba 4.0 this was fixed and by default, execution is denied when the x-bit is not set on a file. In some situations, as when upgrading from an older version, your files may not be executable any more. As a workaround, the old behavior can be brought back, by setting the following smb.conf parameter to "true" (globally or per share):
acl allow execute always = true
We only recommend this as a workaround, until you can fix the permissions by adding the x-bit to files on a share that should be executable.
- Create a new folder, that should be shared, if it doesn't already exist
# mkdir -p /srv/samba/Demo/
- Add a new share to your smb.conf. The following is the required minimum:
[Demo] path = /srv/samba/Demo/ read only = no
- Reload Samba
# smbcontrol all reload-config
As on MS Windows OS, you can define share permissions, which are validated directly when a user connects to a share. Share permissions are defined on each share individually. Samba needs to be reloaded/restarted if changes are made.
[Demo] path = /srv/samba/Demo/ read only = no valid users = +SAMDOM\"Domain Users" invalid users = +SAMDOM\"Demo Group" SAMDOM\foobar
The example above allows connection to the "Demo" share, if the user is member of the "Domain Users" group. Member of the "Demo Group" and user "foobar" are not allowed to connect, even if they are part of "Domain Users". Where the lists conflict, the "invalid users" parameter has precedence!
Contrary to MS Windows hosts, Samba is able to limit the access to a share to a list of IPs, subnets or hostnames.
[Demo] path = /srv/samba/Demo read only = no hosts allow = 127.0.0.1 10.99.0.0/24 GoodHost1
The above example allows access to the share only if the connection is initiated from 127.0.0.1, the subnet 10.99.0.0/24 or the host with name "GoodHost1". Alternatively it is possible to deny hosts via
hosts deny = BadHost1
If both parameters (allow/deny) are defined and the lists conflict, the "allow" parameter has precedence! For further information and examples, see the smb.conf man page.
File system ACLs
ACLs on POSIX enabled shares are set using the typical tools: "chmod", "chown" and "chgrp".
# mkdir /srv/samba/Demo/Example/ # chmod 2770 /srv/samba/Demo/Example/ # chown foobar:"Demo Group" /srv/samba/Demo/Example/
These commands create a new folder in the root of the "Demo" share. The permissions (2770) define that only the owner "foobar" and group "Demo Group" have read/write/execute permissions on the folder. You might have noticed the SGID (setgid) bit was set on the folder. This means that all files and subfolders that will be created, inherit the group ("Demo Group") instead setting it to the default group of the users doing the creation.
The following documentation discusses related topics: