Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller
firstname.lastname@example.org, December 2004
This is a very basic document on how to setup a simple Samba4 server. This is aimed at developers who are already familiar with Samba3 and wish to participate in Samba4 development. This is not aimed at production use of Samba4.
Step 1: download Samba4
If you have downloaded the Samba4 code via a tarball released from the samba.org website, Step 1 has already been completed for you. For testing with the version released in the tarball, you may continue on to Step 2. Note that the references below to the top-level directory named "samba4" will instead be based on the name of the tarball downloaded (e.g. "samba-4.0.0alpha3" for the tarball samba-4.0.0alpha3.tar.gz).
There are 2 methods of doing this:
- Via Rsync: "rsync -avz samba.org::ftp/unpacked/samba_4_0_test/ samba4"
- Via Git: "git clone git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba4; cd samba4 && git checkout -b v4-0-test origin/v4-0-test; cd .."
Both methods will create a directory called "samba4" in the current directory. If you don't have rsync or git then install one of them.
Since only released versions of Samba contain a pre-generated configure script, you will have to generate it by hand:
$ cd samba4/source $ ./autogen.sh
Note that the above rsync command will give you a checked out git repository, but it's is missing all git objects. To turn it into a working git repository you need to do the following steps:
$ cd samba4 $ rm .git/objects/info/alternates $ rm .git/refs/tags/* $ rm -r .git/refs/remotes/ $ git config remote.origin.url git://git.samba.org/samba.git $ git config --add remote.origin.fetch +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* (this line is optional) $ git fetch
Note you can ignore this error from git fetch: error: refs/heads/v4-0-test does not point to a valid object!
Also note that the git fetch will download the complete git history (about 160 MB with all the tags and about 125 MB without old tags).
You can update it to the latest version at some future date using:
$ git pull
Step 2: compile Samba4
Recommended optional development libraries:
- acl and xattr development libraries (libattr1-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
- blkid development libraries (libblkid-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
- gnutls (libgnutls-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
- readline (libreadline5-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
- Python development libraries (python-dev in Debian/Ubuntu) required to compile
$ cd samba4/source $ ./configure $ make
Step 3: install Samba4
Run this as a user who have permission to write to the install directory (defaults to /usr/local/samba). Use --prefix option to configure above to change this.
# make install
Step 4: provision Samba4
The "provision" step sets up a basic user database. Must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.
# cd source # ./setup/provision --realm=YOUR.REALM --domain=YOURDOM --adminpass=SOMEPASSWORD --server-role='domain controller'
'YOURDOM' is the NT4 style domain name. 'YOUR.REALM' is your kerberos realm, which is typically your DNS domain name.
Step 5: Create a simple smb.conf
The provisioning will create a very simple smb.conf with no shares by default. You will need to update it to add at least one share. For example:
[test] path = /data/test read only = no
Step 6: starting Samba4
The simplest is to just run "smbd", but as a developer you may find the following more useful:
# smbd -i -M single
that means "start smbd without messages in stdout, and running a single process. That mode of operation makes debugging smbd with gdb particularly easy.
Note that now it is no longer necessary to have an instance of nmbd from Samba 3 running. If you are running any smbd or nmbd processes they need to be stopped before starting smbd from Samba 4.
Make sure you put the bin and sbin directories from your new install in your $PATH. Make sure you run the right version!
Step 7: testing Samba4
try this command:
$ smbclient //localhost/test -Uadministrator%SOMEPASSWORD
Step 8 (Optional): Configure Server-side DNS
At this point, you can configure DNS on the Samba server to support dynamic update and to work correctly with Windows clients. First, install Bind9 (the 'bind9' package in Debian). Once that's installed, look in /usr/local/samba/private for two files. You'll see "YOUR.REALM.zone" and "named.conf". Copy *just* your.realm.zone to /etc/bind/ (or wherever you want to store zone files) and then take a look at named.conf in the local directory. You'll notice it's not actually a named.conf file, but a set of directions. The following directions are Debian-centric but you should be able to adapt them easily:
- Copy and paste the first portion of named.conf (the zone listing for your realm) into the real /etc/bind/named.conf.
- You'll notice a lot of comments. Read those. If you have a version of bind that works (9.5.0 from Debian Unstable works) then you can also uncomment the "grant ..." line.
- About line 65, search for "tkey-gssapi" and add those two lines to /etc/bind/named.conf.options
- About line 78, add the "export KRB5_KTNAME ..." line to /etc/default/bind
- Run the two commands listed at the bottom of the file
- Extra Optionally: You can add reverse DNS entries and updating as per the example in the file. You'll also have to create the reverse zone in the bind config dir.
- Copy the krb5.conf file from /usr/local/samba/private/ to /etc
- Bind has to be able to update the journal files. The easiest, laziest, and worst way to do this is by 'chown -R bind.bind /etc/bind"; this is totally insecure, but since you're just testing that's okay...for the moment. The correct way to do it is to create the journal files by hand and change their ownership to bind.bind, OR put the journals in a seperate directory (like /var/bind/dynamic or something) and change it's ownership.
- Restart bind
- `tail -n 30 /var/log/daemon.log` and check for any errors regarding the zone files. You may have to do some tweaking.
Note: If you decide to test bind via something like `named -d 9999 -f -g`, remember to run the "EXPORT KRB5_KTNAME..." line beforehand, or it will fail with a GSS/"File Not Found" error.
Assuming it's all up and working, test the DNS resolution. You should be able to do `dig _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.your.realm SRV @localhost` And get something back. For instance, on mine:
samba4-alpha5:~# dig _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local SRV @localhost
; <<>> DiG 9.5.0 <<>> _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local SRV @localhost ;; global options: printcmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 1550 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 1 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local. IN SRV ;; ANSWER SECTION: _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local. 604800 IN SRV 0 100 389 samba4-alpha5.samba5.local.
DNS should be set to go. Read on for joining workstations to the domain.
NOTE about filesystem support
To use the advanced features of Samba4 you need a filesystem that supports both the "user" and "system" xattr namespaces.
If you run Linux with a 2.6 kernel and ext3 this means you need to include the option "user_xattr" in your /etc/fstab. For example:
/dev/hda3 /home ext3 user_xattr 1 1
You also need to compile your kernel with the XATTR and SECURITY options for your filesystem. For ext3 that means you need:
If you are running a Linux 2.6 kernel with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC defined you can check this with the following command:
$ zgrep CONFIG_EXT3_FS /proc/config.gz
If you don't have a filesystem with xattr support, then you can simulate it by using the option:
posix:eadb = /usr/local/samba/eadb.tdb
that will place all extra file attributes (NT ACLs, DOS EAs, streams etc), in that tdb. It is not efficient, and doesn't scale well, but at least it gives you a choice when you don't have a modern filesystem.
Testing your filesystem
To test your filesystem support, install the 'attr' package and run the following 4 commands as root:
# touch test.txt # setfattr -n user.test -v test test.txt # setfattr -n security.test -v test2 test.txt # getfattr -d test.txt # getfattr -n security.test -d test.txt
You should see output like this:
# file: test.txt user.test="test"
# file: test.txt security.test="test2"
If you get any "Operation not supported" errors then it means your kernel is not configured correctly, or your filesystem is not mounted with the right options.
If you get any "Operation not permitted" errors then it probably means you didn't try the test as root.
Configure Windows XP Pro client to join Samba 4 Active Directory
Active Directory is a powerful administration service which enables an administrator to centrally manage a network of Windows 2000, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2003, and Windows Vista Business Edition effectively. To test the real Samba 4 capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Home doesn't include Active Directory functionality and won't work).
To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory. It involves:
1. Configuring DNS Setting 2. Configuring date/time and time zone 3. Joining the domain
Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows XP Pro
Before we configure the DNS setting, verify that you are able to ping the Server's IP Address. If you are not able to ping the server, double check your IP address, firewall, routing, etc.
Once you have verified network connectivity between the Samba server and XP client,
1. Right Click My Network Places -> Properties 2. Double click local area network->Properties 3. Double click tcp/ip 4. Use static dns server, add the Samba 4 server's ip address inside the primary dns server column. Configure DNS Screen Shot 5. Press ok, ok, ok again until finished. 6. Open a command prompt, type 'ping servername.your.realm' (change to suit your custom realm per your provision)
If you get replies, then it means your Windows XP settings are correct (for DNS) and Samba4 Server's DNS services is working as well.
Step 2: Configure date/time and time zone
Active Directory uses Kerberos as the backend for authentication. Kerberos requires that the system clock on the client and server be synchronized to within a few seconds of each other. If they are not synchronized, authentication will fail for apparently no reason.
1. Change the timezone in Windows XP Pro so that server and client using same time zone. In my computer, I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur (I come from Malaysia).Changing Time Zone Screen Shoot 2. Change the date/time so the client have same HH:MM with the server Changing Date/Time Screen Shoot
Step 3: Joining windows XP Pro into Domain
Now your Windows XP Pro is ready to join the Active Directory (AD) domain,
1. Right Click my Computer-> Properties 2. Choose Computer Name, click change.. 3. Click option 'Domain', insert YOUR.REALM (if you failed, try YOURDOM)(screen shoot) 4. When it request username/password, type administrator as username, SOMEPASSWORD as password (per your earlier provision). 5. It will tell you the Windows XP has successfully join into Active Directory Domain, and you need to restart. 6. After restart, you should get the normal domain logon dialog 7. Choose domain YOURDOM, insert username administrator as username, SOMEPASSWORD as password (again, per your earlier provision) 8. If you login successfully, then you able to enjoy samba 4 active directory services at next section.
Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows XP Pro
Due to Samba 4 SWAT is not yet ready for production, we need install windows 2003 adminpak into windows XP in order to manage the domain(It is user friendly). Before begin, make sure the domain administrator have administrative right to control your computer.(To give any user administrative right, in Windows XP Pro, right click my computer, press manage-> choose groups-> doble click administrators and add members from domain into the member list. During you add member from active directory as member, it will prompt you to enter active directory username/password).
Step 1: Installing Windows 2003 Administration Pack and support tools onto Windows XP Pro
1. In Windows XP, download adminpak and supporttools from http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=c16ae515-c8f4-47ef-a1e4-a8dcbacff8e3&displaylang=en http://download.microsoft.com/download/3/e/4/3e438f5e-24ef-4637-abd1-981341d349c7/WindowsServer2003-KB892777-SupportTools-x86-ENU.exe 2. Run through the installation. 3. Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfully. You can also find this at Start>Programs>Administrative Tools, which should have a lot more items now. 4 Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support tools were installed correctly; if yes, then your XP workstation is ready to manage the Samba 4 Active Directory.
Step 2: Viewing samba 4 active directory content
1. Login as domain 'testing1.org' administrator, press start->run. 2. type dsa.msc.Screen Shoot 3 Expand the testing1.org tree to see existing object in domain. Active Directory Screen Shoot
Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From Windows XP Pro
One of Samba4's goals is to integrate with (and replace) Active Directory as a system. At this point, if everything has worked correctly you should have an "Administrative Tools" menu under Programs. If, under Administrative Tools you have "Active Directory Users and Computers", that is a very good sign. Most times, if there is a configuration or bug in Samba4, the AD Users & Computers (among other interfaces) won't show up as an option. You can run it by hand (Start->Run->dsa.msc) but it's unlikely to work correctly.
Step 1: Adding user into Samba 4 Active Directory
Just as with Samba 3, version 4 needs an existing Unix user to map the Samba user to. Basically this task involve 3 jobs.
1. Add Unix User. In most Linux systems, you can use the useradd command. As root: useradd demo passwd demo (Will prompt for a new password) (Debian/Ubuntu users tend to use the adduser script, which is an interactive script that handles both user addition and the password)
NOTE: As of Alpha3, SWAT is disabled and you will not be able to add users through the web interface. If you are using Alpha3 (April 2008), or possibly later, step two here will not work. Instead, use Step 2B.
2. Using SWAT to add samba user. 2.1 Open up mozilla-firefox 2.2 open url http://samba-4-server-ip:901 2.3 User = administrator, password = testing1, domain = testing,->Login. 2.4 click installation-> new user. 2.5 type username=demo, unix name = demo, password you like twice Screen shot for add user using swat
2b. Go into your Samba4 source tree (cd samba4/source) and run ./setup/newuser username
NOTE: As of Alpha 5, creating users correctly puts them into the AD side of things. After performing step, check in the AD Users & Computer setup to verify if the user you created is present. If it is, try logging in as the new user on the workstation. If it works, ignore the next step.
Modify the user from Windows XP.
2.1 Start -> run -> dsa.msc 2.2 Open testing1.org tree, click container 'users'-> double click 'demo'. 2.3 Edit first name, lastname and username Screen shoot for edit general user info with dsa.msc 2.4 Go to account tab, fill in 'demo' in both username and logon name, choose domain (not the pre-win 2000) column.Screen shot for edit user account 2.5 set 'Password never expires' if you'd like. 2.6 Apply, then try to login with new user.
If you able to login, then the user was successfully created.
Step 2: Adding groups into Samba 4 Active Directory
To manage resource more effectively, we need to use groups. Same with users we need to have a unix group and samba groups. I haven't test whether the groups is working properly, but I guess more or less this method is correct(Please feed back if you found any error).
1. Creating Unix Groups $sudo groupadd grpdemo $sudo gedit /etc/group we can add user into group with following syntax:- grpdemo:x:1007:demo, user1, user2
2. Adding group into samba 4 active directory 2.1 As domain testing1.org administrator, start->run->dsa.msc. 2.2 Open tree testing1.org, right click 'users' container->new->groups 2.3 type group name 'grpdemo' in both column->ok (others leave default)
3. Link the Unix groups to samba groups 3.1 Start mozilla-firefox (or IE), open url : http://samba-svr-ip:901 3.2 Username=administrator, password = testing1, domain = testing1 3.3 Choose preview of new swat-> modules -> LDB Browser 3.4 Open up sam.ldb tree, open up dc=testing1,dc=org, open cn=users 3.5 Click CN= grpdemo-> press modify button 3.6 At bottom most of right side, press '+' (Which is adding a new field) 3.7 Put field name(left text box) = 'unixName', data(right text box) = 'grpdemo' -> ok
Adding organization unit (ou) into samba 4 domain
Organizational Unit (ou), is a most powerful feature I found in active directory. Basically this is some kind of container which allow us to drag & drop users,computers into it.
we can link several kind of group policy (You can consider it is a graphical setting) to an ou, and the setting will deploy to all users/computers under the ou. With a single domain we can have many ou and sub ou. So the result is it greatly reduce administrative afford because we able to manage everything via ou. The implementation of group policy will discuss at next chapter.
Before we create an ou, we must know how ou look likes? By default we can see a sample ou 'Domain Controllers', it looks difference with 'users' and 'computers' container right? We can deploy group policy to users or computers container.
1. To create an ou, as testing1 domain administrator, start -> run -> dsa.msc 2. right click testing1.org. 3. choose new -? organizationalunit 4. type 'oudemo' 5. Then you will see an new ou appear, with the name 'oudemo'. 6. You can drag user 'demo' into the new ou (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!) 7. Right Click the 'oudemo', you can click sub ou with method 3.
Normaly we create ou base on total department we have, what branch we have and etc. Don't confuse between groups and ou, groups use to control the permission, ou use for deploy setting to all users/computers under it.
Implementing Group Policy (GPO) into samba 4 domain
Recently Samba 4 Active Directory had support group policy, and we can create the group policy on the fly. The basic ideal of group policy is:- 1. Group Policy have 2 kind of settings, computers and users. 2. Computer setting apply to computer, user setting apply to user 3. We link the group policy to particular ou, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the ou.
1. To add a group policy, right click 'oudemo' ou->properties 2. Choose group policy 3. Press new, name as 'gpoudemo' 4. Press edit to edit the policy. 5. Here will demonstrate how to block user from access the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'control paner'. 6. Double click prohibit access to the control panel 7. Press enable and then press ok. Now the all users under 'oudemo' won't able to access the control panel. 8. Make sure user demo is inside the 'oudemo'(You can drag and drop it). 9. Logout and login as user 'demo' 10. You'll find user demo not able to access control panel
* User configuration will effect once we logout and login. * Computer configuration will effect once restart computer
To learn more how to manage, implementing organizational unit, group policy, active directory. Google for Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.
Thanks for great efford samba development team, Good luck everybody End :)