Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller: Difference between revisions

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*Note: In older alpha versions of Samba4 you need to restart Samba
*Note: In older alpha versions of Samba4 you need to restart Samba to make new shares visible.
to make new shares visible.

== Step 13: Setup a Printer share ==
== Step 13: Setup a Printer share ==

Revision as of 16:09, 14 September 2012

Samba4 HOWTO

This document explains how to setup a simple Samba4 server. This is aimed at people who are already familiar with Samba3 and wish to participate in Samba4 development or test the alpha releases of Samba4. This is not aimed at general production use of Samba4, although some brave sites are running Samba4 in production based on these instructions.

Video Demonstrations of This HOWTO

A set of demonstration videos is available that may provide a useful overview of the contents of this HOWTO.

A Note on Alpha/Beta/RC Versions

Samba4 is developing very rapidly. This HOWTO is frequently updated to reflect the latest changes in the Samba git repository. Please see the Samba4 Status Wiki for more specifics on project status.

Samba 4 OS Requirements

Because of the constantly changing and ever expanding nature of Linux, the OS Requirements for Samba4 have been moved from Step 2, to Samba_4_OS_Requirements This not only includes the required packages for a successful Samba4 deployment, but also the required file system features. Please consider that page as a prerequisite to a successful Samba4 setup.

Step 1: Download Samba4

Currently, there are three methods to download the current Samba4 sources, in order of preference: via git, rsync, or as a tarball from the website. We strongly recommend using the git method for downloading Samba, as it makes getting updates easier, and also allows you to integrate test patches from Samba developers more easily in case of problems.

In the following examples we will assume that your top-level source is named samba-master. If you downloaded a tarball this will instead be based on the name of the tarball downloaded (e.g. samba-4.0.0alpha13 for the tarball samba-4.0.0alpha13.tar.gz). Also note that in the master branch the samba4 code in our current git tree is now located in the top level directory.

Downloading via git

Git allows you to download the source tree via either the git or httpprotocols. In general, the git protocol is the preferred choice since it compresses the data being transferred. To download the source tree via git, run the following command:

$ git clone git:// samba-master

Alternatively, if you prefer to use the http protocol, run the following command:

$ git clone samba-master

Either command will create a directory called samba-master in the current directory.

Updating via git

If you already have downloaded the source tree via git and want to update the tree to the latest version, run the following command in your samba-master directory:

$ git pull

If you get an error like this:

fatal: Unable to create '[...]/samba_master/.git/index.lock': File exists.

Run the command below to reset your tree.

If you are having trouble compiling the source, it may be due to stale files. You can reset your git tree to correct these errors. To reset your git tree, run the following command in your samba-master directory:

$ git clean -x -f -d

Downloading via rsync

If git is not available to you, rsync is the next best choice. To download the source tree via rsync, run the following command:

$ rsync -avz samba-master

This command will create a directory called samba-master in the current directory, containing a checked out git repository. If you plan on using git to manage the tree, you will need to run the following commands in your samba-master directory:

$ cd samba-master/
$ rm .git/refs/tags/*
$ rm -r .git/refs/remotes/
$ git config remote.origin.url git://
$ git config --add remote.origin.fetch +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* (this line is optional)
$ git fetch

Note you can ignore this error from git fetch:

error: refs/heads/master does not point to a valid object!

Refer to the Updating via git instructions on how to manage the source tree with git.

Downloading a tarball

If both git and rsync are not available, you can download the latest Samba4 tarball from the Samba website

Step 2: Compile Samba4

To build Samba4, run the following command in your samba-master directory:

 $ cd samba-master
 $ ./configure.developer
 $ make

The above command will setup Samba4 to install in /usr/local/samba. If you want Samba to install in a different directory, then you should use the --prefix option to configure.developer.

The reason we recommend using configure.developer rather than configure for Samba4 beta releases is that it will include extra debug information that will help us diagnose problems in case of failures. It will also allow you to run the various built in automatic tests.

Profiling with google-perftools

If you want to enable profiling support, change the configure command above to the following:

 $ LDFLAGS="-ltcmalloc -lprofiler" ./configure.developer
(This also works for CFLAGS)

Step 3: Install Samba4

To install Samba4, run the following command in your samba-master directory:

 $ make install

Note that this must be run as a user who has permission to write to the install directory, which defaults to /usr/local/samba. See Step 2: Compile Samba4 for instructions on how to change the install directory.

For the rest of this HOWTO we will assume that you have installed Samba4 in the default location. All future Samba commands will stem from the /usr/local/samba/sbin and /usr/local/samba/bin directories.

Please review the Release Notes for the version you have installed, it may contain important information not yet reflected in this HOWTO.


If you are upgrading from a previous release of Samba4, be sure to review all the Release Notes for the new version, as well as the notes for all the interim versions.

Step 4: Provision Samba4

The provision step sets up a basic user database, and is used when you are setting up your Samba4 server in its own domain. If you instead want to setup your Samba4 server as an additional domain controller in an existing domain, then please see the Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain section on this page. If you want to migrate an existing Samba3 domain to Samba4, see the Migrating an Existing Samba3 Domain to Samba4 section on this page.

In the following examples we will assume that your DNS domain name is, your short (also known as NT4) domain name is samdom, and your Samba server's hostname is samba.

The provision step must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.

 # /usr/local/samba/bin/samba-tool domain provision \ --domain=SAMDOM \
   --adminpass='p4$$word' --server-role=dc

If you run the previous command with a user who does not have write permission to the install directory, you will get an error similar to this:

tdb_open_ex: could not open file /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/DC=SAMDOM,DC=EXAMPLE,DC=COM. ldb: Permission denied

There are many other options you can pass to the samba-tool domain provision command. You can run it with the --help option to see a list of them.

  • Note: As of September 11, 2012 (Samba4.0.0RC1) the provision command now uses Samba4's internal DNS server, if you would like the older behavior, add --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ to the above provision command.
  • Note: You may need to remove the /usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf file if you are re-running the provision command.
  • Note: When using Debian SID samba4 package, the provision script and samba4 installation will abort if hostname -d is returning an empty string (domain name not found). The debian4.config script detects REALM as follows REALM=`hostname -d | tr 'a-z' 'A-Z'`. To avoid this, ensure /etc/resolv.conf contains:

Step 5: Starting Samba4

If you are planning to run Samba4 as a production server, then just run the samba binary as root

# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba

That will run Samba4 in 'standard' mode, which is suitable for production use. Samba4 doesn't yet have init scripts included for each platform, but making one for your platform should not be difficult. There are some example scripts (for RedHat/Fedora and Debian/Ubuntu) on the Samba4/InitScript page.

If you are running Samba4 as a developer you may find the following more useful:

# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba -i -M single

This will start samba with all log messages printed to stdout, and restricting it to a single process. That mode of operation makes debugging samba with gdb easier. If you want to launch it under gdb, run samba as follows:

# gdb --args /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba -i -M single

Note that if you are running any Samba3 smbd or nmbd processes they need to be stopped before starting samba from Samba4.

Take care when running Samba4 commands if you also have a previous version of Samba installed. To avoid inadvertently running the wrong version, you should consider putting the /usr/local/samba/bin and /usr/local/samba/sbin directories in the beginning of your PATH variable.

You can see what version of Samba, if any, is in your PATH variable by running the following:

# samba -V
  • Note: In older developer versions of Samba4 samba was still called smbd.

Step 6: Testing Samba4

First check you have the right version of smbclient by running the following command:

 $ /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient --version

This should show you a version starting with "Version 4.0.XXXXX".

Now run this command to list the shares on your Samba4 server:

$ /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient -L localhost -U%

The output of the command should be similar to what is shown below:

       Sharename       Type       Comment
       ---------       ----       -------
       netlogon        Disk
       sysvol          Disk
       IPC$            IPC        IPC Service (Samba 4.0.0alpha12-GIT-5e755e9)
       ADMIN$          Disk       DISK Service (Samba 4.0.0alpha12-GIT-5e755e9)

The netlogon and sysvol shares are basic shares needed for Active Directory server operation.

If the command failed, restart samba by running the following:

# killall samba
# rm -v -- /usr/local/samba/var/run/
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba

To test that authentication is working, you should try to connect to the netlogon share using the Administrator password you set earlier:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator%'p4$$word' -c 'ls'

The output of the command should be similar to what is shown below:

Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 4.0.0beta9-GIT-e4677e3]
  .                                   D        0  Wed Sep 12 21:00:36 2012
  ..                                  D        0  Wed Sep 12 21:02:28 2012

Step 7: Configure DNS

A working DNS setup is essential to the correct operation of Samba4. Without the right DNS entries, Kerberos won't work, which in turn means that many of the basic features of Samba4 won't work.

It is worth spending some extra time to ensure your DNS setup is correct, as debugging problems caused by mis-configured DNS can take a lot of time later on.

DNS Server

Samba's Internal DNS Server

If you specified --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL or did not specify any backend at all when you provisioned, there is no further setup required for the DNS server. However, you still need to configure your /etc/resolv.conf as shown in Configure /etc/resolv.conf

Bind 9.8.0 or newer

The simplest way to get a working DNS setup for Samba4 is to start with the DNS configuration file that is created by the provision step. The full path of configuration file should be /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf. Based on your version of bind, you might need to make changes to this configuration file. Open the file in a text editor and follow the instructions inside.

If have bind-9.8.0 or newer installed, you can activate the configuration that the provision has created by including this configuration file in bind's named configuration file. This file is typically located in the /etc/bind directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system. Once located, add the following line to the configuration file:

include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf";

After adding that line you should restart your Bind server and check in the system logs for any problems. If available, you can run named-checkconf to help you fix any problems with your named configuration.

Bind 9.7.x

Users of bind-9.7.x are strongly encouraged to upgrade to bind-9.8 or bind-9.9. If this is not possible, refer to the section Configure Kerberos DNS Dynamic Updates for instructions on configuring bind-9.7.

Bind (All Versions)

A common problem you may encounter is that many modern Linux distributions activate 'Apparmor' or 'SELinux' by default, and these may be configured to deny access to Bind for your the named.conf and zone files created in the provision. If your Bind logs show that Bind is getting a access denied error accessing these files, please see your local system documentation for how to enable access to these files in Bind (hint: for Apparmor systems such as Ubuntu, the command aa-logprof may be useful).

  • Note: On Debian systems, the zone auto-generation might detect and use as the domain controller's IP address. This will cause problems when trying to connect to the server from client machines. To fix this, you will need to adjust /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf by changing to reflect the actual IP address of the server you're setting up.
  • Note: On Debian SID (bind9 package), /etc/bind/named.conf.options is missing and this will cause the named daemon to fail to start. To fix this either create an empty file, or comment out corresponding line in /etc/bind/named.conf. See your syslog messages for more information.

Configure /etc/resolv.conf

For all the local DNS lookups to resolve correctly, we need to modify the server's /etc/resolv.conf file. The following example should be sufficient to have DNS resolve properly:

  • Note: If your server is set up to receive it's IP configuration via DHCP, the /etc/resolv.conf file might be automatically updated. Refer to your distribution's documentation on how to stop this behavior.
  • Note: If you are using Samba's internal DNS server, please change to the IP address Samba's DNS server is listening on. You can see which IP to use by examining the output of netstat -an | grep :53

Testing DNS

To test that DNS is working properly, run the following commands and compare the output to what is shown:

$ host -t SRV has SRV record 0 100 389
$ host -t SRV has SRV record 0 100 88
$ host -t A has address

The answers you get should be similar to the ones above (adjusted for your DNS domain name and hostname). If you get any errors, carefully check your system logs to locate the problem.

Step 8: Configure Kerberos

Kerberos configuration is handled by the krb.conf file. This file is typically located in the /etc directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system. Replace the existing file, if any, with the sample from /usr/local/samba/share/setup/krb5.conf. Edit the file and replace ${REALM} with the value you chose for the --realm parameter of the provision command above, make sure to enter the realm in uppercase letters:

    default_realm = SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
    dns_lookup_realm = false
    dns_lookup_kdc = true

Testing Kerberos

The simplest test is to use the kinit command as follows:

$ kinit administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
  • Note: You must specify your domain realm SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM in uppercase letters

kinint will not give you any output. To verify that Kerberos is working, and that you received a ticket, run the following:

$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_1000
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
Valid starting     Expires            Service principal
02/10/10 19:39:48  02/11/10 19:39:46  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

If either kinit or klist do not exist on your system, refer to Samba_4_OS_Requirements on how to install the necessary packages.

You can also test Kerberos form a remote client, but you must first configure the client's krb5.conf and resolve.conf as shown previously.

  • Note: If you are using a client behind NAT then you have to add the following to the krb5.conf on the domain controller server:
    check-ticket-addresses = false

Step 9: Configure DNS Dynamic Updates via Kerberos

Samba4 has the capability to automatically update the bind zone files via Kerberos. While this step is optional, it is highly recommended. If you are using Samba's internal DNS server, no configuration is needed, and you can skip this step.

To setup dynamic DNS updates you need to have a recent version of bind installed. It is highly recommended that you install at least version 9.8.0 as that version includes a set of patches from the Samba Team to make dynamic DNS updates much more robust and easier to configure. In the instructions below we give instructions for both bind 9.7.2 and 9.8.0, but please use 9.8.0 or later if at all possible.

You can tell what version of bind you have using the command /usr/sbin/named -V. If your OS does not have bind-9.8.0 or later, then please consider getting it from a package provided by a 3rd party (for example, on Ubuntu there is a ppa available with the newer versions of bind).

Bind 9.8.0 or Later

When using bind-9.8.0 or later you need to add the following to the options section of your bind config:

options {
 tkey-gssapi-keytab "/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab";

This file is typically located in the /etc/bind directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system.

Bind 9.7.x

If you have bind-9.7.x (specifically 9.7.2 or later), then first determine if you can at all possibly run bind-9.8. You will have far fewer problems. Otherwise, follow these instructions.

The Samba provision will have created a custom /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update configuration file. You need to include this file in your master named.conf to allow Samba/Kerberos DNS updates to automatically take place. Be advised that if you include this file in Bind versions that don't support it, Bind will fail to start.

You additionally need to set two environment variables when using bind-9.7.x:

 export KRB5_KTNAME

These should be put in your settings file for bind. On Debian based systems (including Ubuntu) this is in /etc/default/bind9. On RedHat and SUSE derived systems it is in /etc/sysconfig/named, please refer to your distribution documentation for the correct location to set these environment variables. Strictly speaking you only either need KEYTAB_FILE or KRB5_KTNAME, but which you need depends on your distribution, so it's easier to just set both.

The dns.keytab must be readable by the bind server process. Generally, this is accomplished by executing:

  $ chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab

(the provision should have setup these permissions for you automatically).

Finally, you need to add the following to the options section of your bind config:

options {
 tkey-gssapi-credential "DNS/";
 tkey-domain "SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM";

The last part of the credential in the first line must match the dns name of the server you have set up. This file is typically located in the /etc/bind directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system.

Testing/Debugging Dynamic DNS Updates

The way the automatic DNS update in Samba works is that the provision will create a file /usr/local/samba/private/dns_update_list, which contains a list of DNS entries that Samba will try to dynamically update at startup and every 10 minutes thereafter using samba_dnsupdate utility. Updates will only happen if the DNS entries do not already exist. Remember that you need nsupdate utility from bind the distribution for all these to work.

If you want to test or debug this process, then please run this as root:

/usr/local/samba/sbin/samba_dnsupdate --verbose --all-names

The command line options specified will force an update of all records in the dns_update_list, as well as output detailed information on what is being done.

Interaction With Apparmor or SELinux

If you are using Apparmor or SELinux, you have to ensure that the bind process has read access to the /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab file, the /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf file as well as read-write access to the /usr/local/samba/private/dns directory and it's own zone file. The Samba provision tries to setup the permissions correctly for these files, but you may find you need to make changes in your Apparmor or SELinux configuration if you are running either of those. If you are using Apparmor then the aa-logprof command may help you add any missing permissions you need to add after you start Samba and bind for the first time after configuring them.

Please refer to Step 11: Permissions, SELinux Labeling and Policy for more information.

Step 10: Configure NTP (Optional)

RedHat 6.x: Redhat does not provide a recent NTP version to support signed ntp so a newer version is required.

1. Download NTP =>4.2.6 release from ( verify md5 sum )

2. Download the Redhat 6.1 ntp source rpm file from RedHat and install.

3. Edit the ntp.spec and remove all lines regarding patches and correct the version number.

4. Here is a partial diff showing required edits then run $ rpmbuild -ba ntp.spec

  <  --enable-linuxcaps
  >  --enable-linuxcaps --enable-ntp-signd
  > %{_sbindir}/sntp
  < %{_mandir}/man8/ntptime.8*
  < %{_mandir}/man8/tickadj.8*
  > %{_mandir}/man8/ntpdtime.8*
  > #%{_mandir}/man8/tickadj.8*
  < %{_mandir}/man8/ntp-wait.8*
  > #%{_mandir}/man8/ntp-wait.8*

For Debian/Ubuntu:

Recent versions of Debian/Ubuntu already contain a version of ntp with support for signing. For older versions (Debian Squeeze, Ubuntu < 11.04), get a recent version of ntp:

 $ tar -zxvf ntp-4.x.x.tar.gz
 $ cd ntp-4.x.x
 $ ./configure --enable-ntp-signd
 $ make
 $ make install

5. TODO ( add example ntp.conf changes )

 # A simple ntp.conf tested in Debian Lenny
 # Using the hardware clock
 fudge  stratum 12
 ntpsigndsocket /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd/
 restrict default mssntp

Step 11: Permissions, SELinux Labeling and Policy

These instructions are intended for RedHat 6.X, but may serve as a guide for other distributions/versions.

There is still more work to be done in regards of creating a Samba4 specific SELinux policy but for now you should be able to have everything working without disabling SELinux.

For all the commands below, make sure you have set the following environment variable:



Set Permissions:

chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns
chgrp named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
chmod g+r /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
chmod 775 /usr/local/samba/private/dns

Label files:

chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone

Set Label Persistence:

semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone.jnl
semanage fcontext -a -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd


Multiple attempts to set the context for ntp failed so the below policy was needed for windows clients time sync after joining the DOMAIN.

$ chcon -u system_u -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd
$ chcon -u system_u -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/
$ chcon -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd/socket

samba4.te policy:

module samba4 1.0;
require {
   type ntpd_t;
   type usr_t;
   type initrc_t;
   class sock_file write;
   class unix_stream_socket connectto;
#============= ntpd_t ==============
allow ntpd_t usr_t:sock_file write;
#============= ntpd_t ==============
allow ntpd_t initrc_t:unix_stream_socket connectto;

Check and load policy:

$ checkmodule -M -m -o samba4.mod samba4.te 
$ semodule_package -o samba4.pp -m samba4.mod
$ semodule -i samba4.pp

Step 12: Setup a File Share

The provisioning will create a very simple /usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf file with no non-system shares by default. For the server to be useful you, will need to update it to have at least one share. For example:

      path = /data/test
      comment = Test Share
      read only = no
  • Note: In older alpha versions of Samba4 you need to restart Samba to make new shares visible.

Step 13: Setup a Printer share


Note: Filesystem Support

This information has been included in the Samba_4_OS_Requirements#File_System_Support

Configure a Windows Client to join a Samba 4 Active Directory

Active Directory is a powerful administration service which enables an administrator to centrally manage a network of Windows 2000, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2003, and Windows Vista Business Edition effectively. To test the real Samba4 capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Home doesn't include Active Directory functionality and won't work).

To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory. It involves:

  1. Configuring DNS Setting
  2. Configuring Date & Time and Time Zone
  3. Joining the domain

Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows

Before we configure the DNS settings, verify that you are able to ping the server's IP address. If you are not able to ping the server, double check your IP address, firewall, routing, etc.

Once you have verified network connectivity between the Samba server and client,

  1. Right Click My Network Places -> Properties
  2. Double click Local Area Network -> Properties
  3. Double click TCP/IP
  4. Use a static DNS server, add the Samba4 server's IP address inside the primary DNS server column.
  5. Press ok, ok, ok again until finished.
  6. Open a command prompt, type 'ping' (as per your provision).

If you get replies, then it means that your Windows settings are correct (for DNS) and the Samba4 server's DNS services is working as well.

Step 2: Configure Date & Time and Time Zone

Active Directory uses Kerberos as the backend for authentication. Kerberos requires that the system clocks on the client and server be synchronized to within a few seconds of each other. If they are not synchronized, then authentication will fail for apparently no reason.

  1. Change the timezone in Windows XP Pro so that the server and client are using the same time zone. In my computer, I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur (I come from Malaysia).
  2. Change the date/time so the client have same HH:MM with the server.

Step 3: Joining Windows Clients to the Domain

Now your Windows computer is ready to join the Active Directory (AD) domain,

As an Administrator:

  1. Right Click My Computer-> Properties
  2. Choose Computer Name, click Change..
  3. Click option 'Domain', insert SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM. If this fails, try SAMDOM, (modify as per your provision)Samba4joindomain.jpg
  4. When it requests a username and password, type Administrator as the username, and SOMEPASSWORD as password (as per your earlier provision).
  5. It will tell you that Windows XP has successfully join into your Active Directory Domain, and you need to restart your computer.
  6. After restarting, you should get the normal domain logon dialog.
  7. Choose the domain to SAMDOM, insert Administrator as the username, SOMEPASSWORD as the password (again, as per your earlier provision).
  8. If you login successfully, then you will be able to enjoy Samba4 Active Directory services as shown in the next section.

Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows

We need install Windows 2003 Adminpak into Windows XP in order to use GUI tools to manage the domain. Before you begin, make sure that the domain administrators have administrative rights to control your computer.(To give any user administrative rights in Windows XP Pro, right click My Computer, select Manage-> choose Groups-> double click Administrators and add members from domain into the member list. When you add members from Active Directory, it will prompt you to enter an Active Directory username and password).

Step 1: Installing Windows Remote Administration Tools onto Windows

Windows 7/Vista

  1. Download the Windows Remote Administration Tools from:
  2. Follow the "Install RSAT" instructions

Windows XP Pro

Administration Tools Pack & Support Tools

  1. Download adminpak and supporttools from:
    If you installed an older version of the adminpak, you'll notice the dial-in tab is missing from property pages. Just follow the link above to get SP2 which does not have this issue.
  2. Run through the installation.
  3. Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfully. You can also find this at Start>Programs>Administrative Tools, which should have a lot more items now.
  4. Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support tools were installed correctly; if yes, then your XP workstation is ready to manage the Samba 4 Active Directory.

Group Policy Management Console

  1. You may also find the Group Policy Management Console useful. You can download it from
    This is primarily useful when you have larger installs and are managing many machines. You may need to download the .NET Framework first.

Step 2: Viewing Samba4 Active Directory Content

  1. Login to the domain '' as administrator: press start->run.
  2. Type dsa.msc
  3. Expand the tree to see existing objects in the domain. Samba4dsa.msc.jpg

Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From a Windows Client

One of Samba4's goals is to integrate with (and replace) Active Directory as a system. At this point, if everything has worked correctly you should have an "Administrative Tools" menu under Programs. If, under Administrative Tools you have "Active Directory Users and Computers", that is a very good sign. Most times, if there is a configuration or bug in Samba4, the AD Users & Computers (among other interfaces) won't show up as an option. You can run it by hand (Start->Run->dsa.msc) but it's unlikely to work correctly.

Step 1: Adding Users into Samba 4 Active Directory

Unlike Samba3, Samba4 does not require a local unix user for each Samba user that is created.

To create a Samba user, use the command

samba-tool user add USERNAME

To inspect the allocated user ID and SID, use wbinfo

$ bin/wbinfo --name-to-sid USERNAME
S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005 SID_USER (1)

$ bin/wbinfo --sid-to-uid S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005

If you want to change this mapping, then use ldbedit on the idmap.idb, like this:

$ bin/ldbedit -e emacs -H /usr/local/samba/private/idmap.ldb objectsid=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005

You will find records that look like this:

# record 1
dn: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
cn: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
objectClass: sidMap
objectSid: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
xidNumber: 3000011
distinguishedName: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005

If you change the xidNumber attribute and save your editor then exit, then Samba will update the mapping to between the SID and the user ID. Updating group mappings works in the same way.

You can also manage users using the normal Windows AD user management tools.

Setting Up Roaming Profiles

1. You will need to create a share for the profiles, typically named profiles. Edit the /usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf to include:

       path = /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
       read only = no

2. Create the directory above using:

 $ sudo mkdir /usr/local/samba/var/profiles

3. In Windows, start Active Directory Users and Computers, select all the users, right click, and hit properties

4. Under the profile tab, in the Profile path, type the path to your share along with %USERNAME% as follows:


5. click OK, logout and login as one of those users. When you logout again, you should see that the profile has been synced onto the samba server.

An excellent walk-through on configuring Roaming Profiles and Folder Redirection is available here.

Adding Organization Units (OU) Into a Samba4 Domain

The Organizational Unit (OU) is a powerful feature in Active Directory. This is a type of container which allows you to drag & drop users and/or computers into it.

We can link several types of group policies to an OU, and the settings will push out to all users/computers that sit under the OU. Withing a single domain, you can have as many OUs and sub-OUs as you'd like. The result is that it can greatly reduce administrative overhead since you are able to manage everything via an OU. The implementation of Group Policy will be discussed in the next chapter.

Before we create an OU, we must know what one looks like. By default we can see a sample OU called 'Domain Controllers', which uses a different icon in the Windows management tools than the 'users' and 'computers' containers. We can deploy Group Policy to the users or the computers container.

  1. To create an OU as the Domain Administrator, click Start -> Run -> dsa.msc
  2. Right click your domain.
  3. Select New -> Organizational Unit
  4. Type 'OU Demo'
  5. You will see a new OU appear, with the name 'OU Demo'.
  6. You can drag the user 'demo' into the new OU (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!).
  7. Right click 'OU Demo', A sub-OU can be created with New -> Organizational Unit.

Normally OUs are created according to the department setup of your organization. Be careful not to confuse Groups and OUs. Groups are used to control permissions, OUs are used for deploying settings to all users/computers within the OU.

Implementing Group Policies (GPO) in A Samba4 Domain

Samba4 Active Directory has support for group policies, and can create the group policy on the fly. The basic idea of group policies is:-

  1. Group Policies have two kinds of settings: computers and users.
  2. Computer settings apply to computers, while user settings apply to users.
  3. We link the group policy to a particular OU, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the OU.
  4. To add a group policy, right click 'OU Demo' OU->properties.
  5. Choose group policy.
  6. Press new, and name it as 'GP Demo'.
  7. Press edit to modify the policy.
  8. Here will demonstrate how to block users from access to the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'Administrative Templates'->'Control Panel'.
  9. Double click on 'Prohibit access to the Control Panel'.
  10. Press enabled and then press OK. Now the all users under 'OU Demo' won't able to access to the control panel.
  11. Make sure that the user 'demo' is inside the 'OU Demo' (You can drag and drop it).
  12. Logout and login as user 'demo'.
  13. You'll find user demo is not able to access control panel.


User configuration will take effect once you logout and login.
Computer configuration will take effect when you restart the computer.
GPO Password Policies are not read by Samba when assigning passwords, to change the policy that Samba uses you must use samba-tool domain passwordsettings

To learn more about managing and implementing organizational units, group policies, and Active Directory, try a web search for Google in Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.

Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain

Once you have a Samba domain controller set up, you can choose to join additional domain controllers to the domain, whether they be additional Samba domain controllers, or additional Windows domain controllers.

If you wish to join an additional Samba domain controller to a domain, then please see the Joining a domain as a DC page. The instructions on that page are the same for joining Samba to a Windows domain as they are for joining Samba to an existing Samba domain.

If you wish to join a new Windows domain controller to a Samba domain, then you should use the 'dcpromo' tool on the Windows machine. Please see the normal instructions for installing dcpromo on Windows, with the exception that you should not check the 'DNS server' option box when it is offered. Right now you should either use Windows for DNS, or use Samba and bind9 for DNS. Mixing the two can work, but it is an advanced topic that is beyond the scope of this howto.

Migrating an Existing Samba3 Domain to Samba4

It is very likely that you already have a running Samba3 domain on your network. The question is, how do you migrate that domain and all of its users and machines over to a new Samba4 based domain without having to move every user profile and machine to the new domain? The answer is the samba-tool domain classicupgrade function.

Report Your Success/Failure!

Samba4, as a replicating domain controller, is still developing rapidly. We'd like to hear from users about their successes and failures. While Samba4 is still in alpha release, we would encourage you to report both your successes and failures to the samba-technical mailing list on

Please be aware that Samba4 is not complete, and therefore, should be deployed carefully until it is ready for a non-alpha release.