Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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= HOWTO to set up Samba as an Active Directory compatible Domain Controller =
+
= Introduction =
  
This document explains how to setup a simple Samba
+
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
server as a Domain Controller compatible with Microsoft's Active Directory, for use particularly by Microsoft Windows clients that are joined to the Active Directory Domain, for services such as Domain Logon.  We refer to this capability as being an AD DC for short.  
 
  
== Video Demonstrations of This HOWTO ==
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].
  
A set of [[samba4/videos|demonstration videos]] is available that
+
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
may provide a useful overview of the contents of this HOWTO.
+
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
== A Note on Versions ==
+
= Preparing the Installation =
  
Samba is developing rapidly. This HOWTO is frequently updated to reflect the latest changes in the Samba git repository. Please see the [[Release_Planning_for_Samba_4.0|Samba 4.0 Release Planning]] for more specifics on the release planning.
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
 +
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  
== Server Information ==
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For the rest of this tutorial, we will be using the following configuration for our example AD DC configuration.  
+
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
  Installation Directory: /usr/local/samba
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
  Server Hostname: samba
 
  DNS Domain Name: samdom.example.com
 
  NT4 Domain Name: samdom
 
  IP Address: 192.168.1.2
 
  Server Role: DC
 
  
== Samba OS Requirements ==
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  
Because of the constantly changing and ever expanding nature of Linux, the '''OS Requirements for Samba 4 have been moved''' from Step 2, to [[Samba_4/OS_Requirements]].
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
This not only includes the required packages for a successful Samba AD DC deployment, but also the required file system features.  Please consider that page as a prerequisite to a successful Samba AD DC setup.
+
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
== Step 1: Download Samba ==
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
 +
127.0.0.1     localhost localhost.localdomain
 +
10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
Currently, there are three methods to download the current Samba sources, either as a tarball of the latest stable release, or a development version via git or rsync. If you hope to work with the team on a development version to resolve issues you may hit via code changes, we recommend using the git method for downloading Samba, as it makes getting updates easier, and also allows you to integrate test patches from Samba developers more easily in case of problems.
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
 +
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
  
In the following examples we will assume that your top-level source is named <tt>samba4</tt>.  If you downloaded a tarball this will instead be based on the name of the tarball downloaded (e.g.  <tt>samba-4.0.0</tt> for the tarball samba-4.0.0.tar.gz).  Also note that in the <tt>master</tt> branch the
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
Samba 4 code in our current git tree is now located in the top level directory.
+
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  
=== Downloading a tarball ===
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
  
If you wish to use a released version of Samba 4.0, you can download the latest Samba 4.0 tarball from [http://ftp.samba.org/pub/samba/ the Samba website]
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
 +
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
 +
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
 +
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
=== Downloading via git ===
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  
Git allows you to download the source tree via either the <tt>git</tt> or <tt>http</tt>protocols.  In general, the <tt>git</tt> protocol is the preferred choice since it compresses the data being transferred. To download the source tree via <tt>git</tt>, run the following command:
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
  
  $ git clone git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba4
+
  # rm /etc/krb5.conf
  
Alternatively, if you prefer to use the <tt>http</tt> protocol, run the following command:
 
  
$ git clone http://gitweb.samba.org/samba.git samba4
 
  
Either command will create a directory called <tt>samba4</tt> in the current
 
directory. This directory will hold a checkout of the branch you choose to download (master, test, or stable).
 
  
'''If you are using the checkout for a production installation you should use the following git branches:'''
 
* 'v4-0-stable' (which contains the lastest stable 4.0.x release)
 
    $ git clone -b v4-0-stable git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba4
 
'''or'''
 
* 'v4-0-test' (which contains the patches scheduled for the next stable 4.0.x release)
 
    $ git clone -b v4-0-test git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba4
 
  
==== Updating via git ====
+
= Installing Samba =
  
If you already have downloaded the source tree via <tt>git</tt> and want to update the tree to the latest version, run the following command in your <tt>samba4</tt> directory:
+
{{:Installing_Samba}}
  
$ git pull
 
  
If you get an error like this:
 
fatal: Unable to create '[...]/samba_master/.git/index.lock': File exists.
 
Run the command below to reset your tree.
 
  
If you are having trouble compiling the source, it may be due to stale files.  You can reset your <tt>git</tt> tree to correct these errors.  To reset your <tt>git</tt> tree, run the following command in your <tt>samba4</tt> directory:
 
  
$ git clean -x -f -d
 
  
== Step 2: Compile Samba ==
+
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
  
To build Samba, run the following commands in your Samba source directory:
+
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
  
  $ ./configure --enable-debug --enable-selftest
+
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
  $ make
 
  
The above command will setup Samba to install in <tt>/usr/local/samba</tt>. If you want Samba to install in a different directory, then you should use the <tt>--prefix</tt> option to <tt>configure</tt>.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
  
The reason we recommend using <tt>--enable-debug --enable-selftest</tt> for Samba is that it will include extra debug information that will help us diagnose problems in case of failures, and will also allow you to run our selftest <tt>make test</tt> to validate that Samba can behave correctly on your platform.  Both of these are however, entirely '''optional'''.
 
  
'''Profiling with google-perftools'''
+
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
  
If you want to enable profiling support, change the configure command above to the following:
+
# samba-tool domain provision --help
  $ LDFLAGS="-ltcmalloc -lprofiler" ./configure.developer
 
:''(This also works for CFLAGS)''
 
  
== Step 3: Install Samba ==
 
  
To install Samba, run the following command in your Samba source directory:
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to store Unix attributes in AD, such as user IDs (UID), home directories paths, group IDs (GID). Enabling the NIS extensions has no disadvantages. However, enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
 +
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
  
  $ make install
 
  
Note that this must be run as a user who has permission to write to the install directory, which defaults to <tt>/usr/local/samba</tt>. See [[#Step 2: Compile Samba4|Step 2: Compile Samba ]] for instructions on how to change the install directory.
 
 
For the rest of this HOWTO we will assume that you have installed
 
Samba in the default location.  All future Samba commands will stem from the <tt>/usr/local/samba/sbin</tt> and <tt>/usr/local/samba/bin</tt> directories.
 
  
Please review the [[Samba4#Previous_Releases|Release Notes]] for the version you have installed, it may contain important information not yet reflected in this HOWTO.
+
== Parameter Explanation ==
  
=== Upgrading ===
+
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
  
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Samba 4.x, be sure to review all the [[Samba4#Previous_Releases|Release Notes]] for the new version, as well as the notes for all the interim versions.
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Interactive Mode Setting
 +
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
  
To upgrade to the latest Samba 4.x version from a previous Samba 4.x release, you must first download the latest tarball or git tree. If using git, you may either do a full download of the latest git tree as described in the [http://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba4/HOWTO#Downloading_via_git Downloading via git] section, or you may upgrade your current git tree as described in the [http://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba4/HOWTO#Updating_via_git Updating via git] section. Once you have obtained the latest version, simply run the following commands.
+
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
 +
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
  
  $ ./configure --enable-debug --enable-selftest
 
  $ make
 
  $ make install
 
  
For more information on the commands above and their associated options, please refer to [http://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba4/HOWTO#Step_2:_Compile_Samba Step 2]
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
== Step 4: Provision Samba ==
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
The provision step sets up a basic user database, and is used when you are setting up your Samba
+
{{Imbox
server in its own domain. If you instead want to setup your Samba server as an additional domain controller
+
| type = important
in an existing domain, then please see the [[#Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain|Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain]] section on this page.  If you want to migrate an existing Samba 3.x domain to Samba 4.0 as an AD DC, see the [[#Migrating an Existing Samba3 Domain to Samba4|Migrating an Existing Samba 3 Domain to Samba 4]] section on this page.
+
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
 +
}}
  
The provision step must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.
 
  
  # /usr/local/samba/bin/samba-tool domain provision
 
  
This will run the provision tool interactively. For realm use something like <tt>samdom.example.com</tt>, for domain (it should suggest this) use <tt>samdom</tt>.
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
  
If you run the previous command with a user who does not have write permission to the install directory, you will get an error similar to this:
+
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
tdb_open_ex: could not open file /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/DC=SAMDOM,DC=EXAMPLE,DC=COM. ldb: Permission denied
 
  
You can pass options to <tt>samba-tool domain provision</tt> command. You can run it with the <tt>--help</tt> option to see a list of them.
+
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
 +
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
  DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
  
* Note: As of September 11, 2012 (Samba 4.0.0 RC1) the provision command now uses Samba's internal DNS server, if you would like the older behavior, add <tt>--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ</tt> to the above provision command.
+
{{Imbox
* Note: You may need to remove the <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt> file if you are re-running the provision command.
+
| type = note
* Note: If you use the --adminpass='password' switch, be aware that there are password complexity requirements, so if you are getting some odd error with provision, try a more complex password ie. 'Pa$$w0rd'
+
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
* Note: If you have a "password complexity" failure during domain provisionsing - read the following! <br>[I think the requirement is: at least one uppercase letter, and one number, and at least eight characters long.]<br>If you don't use a complex enough password, the provision script will bomb and re-running it will also bomb - because it doesn't know how to handle a partially provisioned setup.<br>A solution is: delete the ../samba directory. [Deleting only the smb.conf wasn't doing it, in my case.]<br>Thus, if you installed samba to the "default" location, do the following: rm /usr/local/samba/ -rf <br> Then run [make install] again to re-install the files. <br> Finally, run the domain provision again - with a better password.
+
}}
  
== Step 5: Starting Samba as an AD DC ==
 
  
If you are planning to run Samba as a production server, then just run the <tt>samba</tt> binary as root
 
  
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
  
That will run Samba in 'standard' mode, which is suitable for
+
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
production use. Samba doesn't yet have init scripts included
+
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
for each platform, but making one for your platform should not be
+
* NIS extensions enabled
difficult. There are some example scripts (for RedHat/Fedora, Debian and Ubuntu) on the [[Samba4/InitScript]] page.
+
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
  
If you are running Samba as a developer you may find
+
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
the following more useful:
 
  
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba -i -M single
 
  
This will start <tt>samba</tt> with all log messages printed to stdout, and restricting it to a
 
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging <tt>samba</tt> with <tt>gdb</tt>
 
easier. If you want to launch it under <tt>gdb</tt>, run <tt>samba</tt> as follows:
 
  
# gdb --args /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba -i -M single
 
  
Note that if you are running any Samba 3 <tt>smbd</tt> or <tt>nmbd</tt> processes
 
they need to be stopped before starting <tt>samba</tt> from Samba 4.
 
  
Take care when running Samba commands if you also have a previous version of Samba installed.  To avoid inadvertently running the wrong version, you should consider putting the <tt>/usr/local/samba/bin</tt> and <tt>/usr/local/samba/sbin</tt> directories in the beginning of your <tt>PATH</tt> variable.
+
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
  
You can see what version of Samba, if any, is in your <tt>PATH</tt> variable by running the following:
+
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
# samba -V
 
  
== Step 6: Testing Samba as an AD DC ==
+
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
  
First check you have the right version of <tt>smbclient</tt> by running the following command:
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
 +
# systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
  $ /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient --version
 
  
This should show you a version starting with "Version 4.0.XXXXX".
 
  
Now run this command to list the shares on your Samba server:
 
  
$ /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient -L localhost -U%
+
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
  
The output of the command should be similar to what is shown below:
+
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
  
        Sharename      Type      Comment
+
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>domain</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
        ---------      ----      -------
 
        netlogon        Disk
 
        sysvol          Disk
 
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.0.0)
 
  
The <tt>netlogon</tt> and <tt>sysvol</tt> shares are basic shares needed for Active Directory server
+
search samdom.example.com
operation.  
+
nameserver 10.99.0.1
  
If the command failed, restart samba by running the following:
 
  
# killall samba
 
# rm -v -- /usr/local/samba/var/run/smbd-fileserver.conf.pid
 
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba
 
  
To test that authentication is working, you should try to connect to the <tt>netlogon</tt> share
 
using the Administrator password you set earlier:
 
  
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator%'p4$$word' -c 'ls'
 
  
The output of the command should be similar to what is shown below:
+
= Create a reverse zone =
  
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 4.0.0beta9-GIT-e4677e3]
+
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
  .                                  D        0  Wed Sep 12 21:00:36 2012
 
  ..                                  D        0  Wed Sep 12 21:02:28 2012
 
  
== Step 7: Configure DNS ==
+
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
 +
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 +
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
  
A working DNS setup is essential to the correct operation of
+
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
Samba. Without the right DNS entries, Kerberos won't work, which in
 
turn means that many of the basic features of Samba won't work.
 
  
It is worth spending some extra time to ensure your DNS setup is correct, as debugging problems caused by mis-configured DNS can take a
+
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
lot of time later on.
 
  
=== DNS Server ===
 
==== Samba's Internal DNS Server ====
 
  
If you specified <tt>--dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL</TT> or did not specify any backend at all when you provisioned, there is no further setup required for the DNS server.  However, you still need to configure your <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> as shown in [[#Configure /etc/resolv.conf|Configure /etc/resolv.conf]]
 
  
If you want the internal DNS server to forward requests it isn't responsible for, then add the following to your smb.conf:
 
  dns forwarder = {IP-Address of the DNS you want to forward to}
 
  
'''Warning:''' If you are running X windows on your machine, networkmanager could be spawning dnsmasq, check the logs for lines like:
 
  
Failed to bind to 0.0.0.0:53 TCP - NT_STATUS_ADDRESS_ALREADY_ASSOCIATED
+
= Configuring Kerberos =
  
If you need to disable this you can open <tt>/etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf</tt> in your favorite editor as root, and comment out the line <tt>dns=dnsmasq</tt>, then <tt>restart network-manager</tt>
+
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
  
==== Bind 9.8.0 or newer ====
+
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
  
If using BIND, the next step to get a working DNS setup for Samba is to start
+
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
with the DNS configuration file that is created by the
 
[[#Step 4: Provision Samba4|provision step]] or if you are using any of the other samba-tool options (classicupgrade for example) you can specify --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ or --dns-backend=BIND9_FLATFILE.
 
  
You can
+
{{Imbox
activate the configuration that the provision has created by including this configuration file in bind's named configuration file. This file is typically located in the <tt>/etc/bind</tt> directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system. Once located, add the following line to the configuration file:
+
| type = important
 +
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
 +
}}
  
include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf";
+
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
  
Edit that file to uncomment the correct dlz plugin line, based on your version of bind.  Open the <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf</tt> file in a text editor and follow the instructions inside.
 
  
After adding that line you should restart your Bind server and check
 
in the system logs for any problems.  If available, you can run <tt>named-checkconf</tt> to help you fix any problems with your named configuration.
 
  
==== Bind 9.7.x ====
 
  
Users of bind-9.7.x are strongly encouraged to upgrade to bind-9.8 or bind-9.9.  If this is not possible, refer to the section [[#Step 9: Configure Kerberos DNS Dynamic Updates|Configure Kerberos DNS Dynamic Updates]] for instructions on configuring bind-9.7.
 
  
==== Bind (All Versions) ====
+
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
  
A common problem you may encounter is that many modern Linux distributions activate
+
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
'Apparmor' or 'SELinux' by default, and these may be configured to
 
deny access to Bind for your the <tt>named.conf</tt> and zone files created in
 
the provision. If your Bind logs show that Bind is getting a access
 
denied error accessing these files, please see your local system
 
documentation for how to enable access to these files in Bind (hint:
 
for Apparmor systems such as Ubuntu, the command <tt>aa-logprof</tt> may be
 
useful).
 
  
*Note: On Debian systems, the zone auto-generation might detect and use <tt>127.0.1.1</tt> as the domain controller's IP address. This will cause problems when trying to connect to the server from client machines.  To fix this, you will need to adjust <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf</tt> by changing <tt>127.0.1.1</tt> to reflect the actual IP address of the server you're setting up.
+
  # samba
*Note: On Debian SID (bind9 package), <tt>/etc/bind/named.conf.options</tt> is missing and this will cause the <tt>named</tt> daemon to fail to start.  To fix this either create an empty file, or comment out corresponding line in <tt>/etc/bind/named.conf</tt>.  See your syslog messages for more information.
 
  
=== Configure /etc/resolv.conf ===
+
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
 +
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
 +
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
  
For all the local DNS lookups to resolve correctly, we need to modify the server's <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> file.  The following example should be sufficient to have DNS resolve properly:
 
  
domain samdom.example.com
 
nameserver 192.168.1.2
 
  
*Note: Remember to change the IP Address to your Samba server's IP Address
+
== Verifying the File Server ==
*Note: If your server is set up to receive its IP configuration via DHCP, the <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> file might be automatically updated.  Refer to your distribution's documentation on how to stop this behavior.
 
  
=== Testing DNS ===
+
To list all shares provided by the DC:
  
To test that DNS is working properly, run the following commands and compare the output to what is shown:
+
$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
        ---------      ----      -------
 +
        netlogon        Disk     
 +
        sysvol          Disk     
 +
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Server              Comment
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 +
        Workgroup            Master
 +
        ---------            -------
  
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
+
{{Imbox
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 samba.samdom.example.com.
+
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
  
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 samba.samdom.example.com.
 
  
  $ host -t A samba.samdom.example.com.
+
  $ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
  samba.samdom.example.com has address 10.0.0.1
+
Enter Administrator's password:
 +
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
  .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
  ..                                 D        0 Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
 +
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
  
The answers you get should be similar to the ones above (adjusted for your DNS domain name and hostname). If you get any errors,  
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
carefully check your system logs to locate the problem.
 
  
== Step 8: Configure Kerberos ==
 
  
Kerberos configuration is handled by the <tt>krb.conf</tt> file.  This file is typically located in the <tt>/etc</tt> directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system.  Replace the existing file, if any, with the sample from <tt>/usr/local/samba/share/setup/krb5.conf</tt>.  Edit the file and replace <tt>${REALM}</tt> with the value you chose for the <tt>--realm</tt> parameter of the provision command above, make sure to enter the realm in '''uppercase letters''':
 
*Note: If you've already forgotten <gasp!> what Realm you supplied, you can find it in the smb.conf file. [for default installs that's /usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf]
 
[libdefaults]
 
    default_realm = SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
    dns_lookup_realm = false
 
    dns_lookup_kdc = true
 
  
=== Testing Kerberos ===
+
== Verifying DNS ==
  
The simplest test is to use the <tt>kinit</tt> command as follows:
+
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
  
$ kinit administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
+
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
Password:
 
  
*Note: You must specify your domain realm <tt>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</tt> in '''uppercase letters'''
+
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
<tt>kinit</tt> will not give you any output. [It may give you a password expiration notice.] To verify that Kerberos is working, and that you received a ticket, run the following:
+
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
  
 +
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
$ klist
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_1000
 
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
 
 
Valid starting    Expires            Service principal
 
02/10/10 19:39:48  02/11/10 19:39:46  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
  
If either <tt>kinit</tt> or <tt>klist</tt> do not exist on your system, refer to [[Samba_4_OS_Requirements]] on how to install the necessary packages.
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
You can also test Kerberos form a remote client, but you must first configure the client's <tt>krb5.conf</tt> and <tt>resolve.conf</tt> as shown previously.
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
*Note: If you are using a client behind NAT then you have to add the following to the <tt>krb5.conf</tt> on the domain controller server:
 
  
[kdc]
 
    check-ticket-addresses = false
 
*Note: If provision generated you a password and you forgot it or didn't get it saved in some way, you can use "samba-tool user setpassword administrator" as root to reset it.
 
  
== Step 9: Configure DNS Dynamic Updates via Kerberos ==
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  
Samba has the capability to automatically update the bind zone files via Kerberos.  While this step is optional, it is highly recommended.  If you are using Samba's internal DNS server, no configuration is needed, and you can skip this step.
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
  
To setup dynamic DNS updates you need to have a recent version of bind installed. It is highly recommended that you install at least version 9.8.0 as that version includes a set of patches from the Samba Team to make dynamic DNS updates much more robust and easier to configure. In the instructions below we give instructions for both bind 9.7.2 and 9.8.0, but please use 9.8.0 or later if at all possible.
+
$ kinit administrator
 +
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  
You can tell what version of bind you have using the command <tt>/usr/sbin/named -V</tt>. If your OS does not have bind-9.8.0 or later, then please consider getting it from a package provided by a 3rd party (for example, on Ubuntu there is a ppa available with the newer versions of bind).
+
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The Kerberos realm is automatically appended, if you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command.<br />Set Kerberos realms always in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
=== Bind 9.8.0 or Later ===
+
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
  
When using bind-9.8.0 or later you need to add the following to the options section of your bind config:
+
  $ klist
  options {
+
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
  [...]
+
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
  tkey-gssapi-keytab "/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab";
+
  [...]
+
  Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
  };
+
  01.11.2016 08:45:00 12.11.2016 18:45:00 krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
+
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
This file is typically located in the <tt>/etc/bind</tt> directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system.
 
 
 
=== Bind 9.7.x ===
 
 
 
If you have bind-9.7.x (specifically 9.7.2 or later), then first determine if you can
 
at all possibly run bind-9.8. You will have far fewer problems.  Otherwise, follow these instructions.
 
 
 
The Samba provision will have created a custom <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update</tt> configuration file. You need to include this file in your master <tt>named.conf</tt> to allow Samba/Kerberos DNS updates to automatically take place.  Be advised that if you include this file in Bind versions that don't support it, Bind will fail to start.
 
 
 
You additionally need to set two environment variables when using bind-9.7.x:
 
 
 
  KEYTAB_FILE="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
 
  KRB5_KTNAME="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
 
  export KEYTAB_FILE
 
  export KRB5_KTNAME
 
 
 
These should be put in your settings file for bind. On Debian based
 
systems (including Ubuntu) this is in <tt>/etc/default/bind9</tt>. On RedHat and SUSE derived systems it is
 
in <tt>/etc/sysconfig/named</tt>, please refer to your distribution documentation for the correct location to set these environment variables. Strictly speaking you only either need
 
<tt>KEYTAB_FILE</tt> or <tt>KRB5_KTNAME</tt>, but which you need depends on your distribution,
 
so it's easier to just set both.
 
 
 
The <tt>dns.keytab</tt> must be readable by the bind server process. Generally, this is accomplished by executing:
 
  $ chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
 
 
(the provision should have setup these permissions for you automatically).
 
 
 
Finally, you need to add the following to the options section of your bind config:
 
options {
 
  [...]
 
  tkey-gssapi-credential "DNS/server.samdom.example.com";
 
  tkey-domain "SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM";
 
  [...]
 
  };
 
 
 
The last part of the credential in the first line must match the dns name of the server you have set up. This file is typically located in the <tt>/etc/bind</tt> directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system.
 
 
 
=== Testing/Debugging Dynamic DNS Updates ===
 
 
 
The way the automatic DNS update in Samba works is that the provision
 
will create a file <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/dns_update_list</tt>, which
 
contains a list of DNS entries that Samba will try to dynamically
 
update at startup and every 10 minutes thereafter using <tt>samba_dnsupdate</tt> utility.
 
Updates will only happen if the DNS entries do not already exist.
 
Remember that you need <tt>nsupdate</tt> utility from bind the distribution
 
for all these to work.
 
 
 
If you want to test or debug this process, then please run this as root:
 
 
 
  /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba_dnsupdate --verbose --all-names
 
 
 
The command line options specified will force an update of all records in the <tt>dns_update_list</tt>, as well as output detailed information on what is being done.
 
 
 
=== Interaction With Apparmor or SELinux ===
 
 
 
If you are using Apparmor or SELinux, you have to ensure that the bind process has read access to the <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab</tt> file, the
 
<tt>/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf</tt> file as well as read-write access to the <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/dns</tt> directory and it's own zone file. The Samba provision tries to setup the permissions
 
correctly for these files, but you may find you need to make changes
 
in your Apparmor or SELinux configuration if you are running either of
 
those. If you are using Apparmor then the <tt>aa-logprof</tt> command may help
 
you add any missing permissions you need to add after you start Samba
 
and bind for the first time after configuring them.
 
 
 
Please refer to [[#Step 11: Permissions, SELinux Labeling and Policy|Step 11: Permissions, SELinux Labeling and Policy]] for more information.
 
 
 
== Step 10: Configure NTP (Optional) ==
 
 
 
You require a recent ntpd version (=>4.2.6) that supports signed ntp. E. g. the version shipped with RHEL6 and Ubuntu < 11.04 are to old. The Ntpd of Debian Squeeze supports signed ntp.
 
 
 
1. Download ntpd from ntp.org (verify md5 sum) and compile it (add additionals ./configure parameters, if needed):
 
 
 
  $ tar -zxvf ntp-4.x.x.tar.gz
 
  $ cd ntp-4.x.x
 
  $ ./configure --enable-ntp-signd
 
  $ make
 
  $ make install
 
 
 
2a. If you already have a supported ntpd version and ntp.conf, you have to add/adjust only the following lines for minimal:
 
  ntpsigndsocket /usr/local/samba/var/lib/ntp_signd/
 
  restrict default mssntp
 
 
 
2b. If a minimal/simple ntp.conf is fine for you, then fill the file with the following:
 
  server 127.127.1.0
 
  fudge 127.127.1.0 stratum 12
 
  ntpsigndsocket /usr/local/samba/var/lib/ntp_signd/
 
  restrict default mssntp
 
 
 
2c. A more complex ntp.conf is the following:
 
  server 127.127.1.0
 
  fudge  127.127.1.0 stratum 10
 
  server 0.pool.ntp.org  iburst prefer
 
  server 1.pool.ntp.org  iburst prefer
 
  driftfile /var/lib/ntp/ntp.drift
 
  logfile /var/log/ntp
 
  ntpsigndsocket /usr/local/samba/var/lib/ntp_signd/
 
  restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer mssntp
 
  restrict 127.0.0.1
 
  restrict 0.pool.ntp.org mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
 
  restrict 1.pool.ntp.org mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
 
For explanation: This config allows clients to receive time from this NTP host, localhost
 
doesn't have any restrictions, and the servers we receive the time from ,are not allowed
 
to do anything else than providing the time to us. For mor information about ntpd
 
access controll, see
 
http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Support/AccessRestrictions
 
 
 
3. On members of the domain you don't have to configure anything. Per default they will receive
 
the time from the DC that has the FSMO role PDC.
 
 
 
== Step 11: Permissions, SELinux Labeling and Policy ==
 
 
 
These instructions are intended for RedHat 6.X, but may serve as a guide for other distributions/versions.
 
 
 
There is still more work to be done in regards of creating a Samba 4 specific SELinux policy but for now you should be
 
able to have everything working '''without''' disabling SELinux.
 
 
 
For all the commands below, make sure you have set the following environment variable:
 
MYREALM="samdom.example.com"
 
 
 
=== Bind ===
 
 
 
Set Permissions:
 
  chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
chgrp named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
chmod g+r /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
chmod 775 /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
 
 
Label files:
 
chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
 
chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
 
 
 
Set Label Persistence:
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone.jnl
 
semanage fcontext -a -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd
 
 
 
=== NTP ===
 
Set Permissions:
 
$ chgrp ntp /usr/local/samba/var/lib/ntp_signd
 
 
 
Multiple attempts to set the context for ntp failed so the below policy was needed for windows clients time sync after joining the DOMAIN.
 
$ chcon -u system_u -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd
 
$ chcon -u system_u -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/
 
$ chcon -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd/socket
 
 
 
<tt>samba4.te</tt> policy:
 
module samba4 1.0;
 
 
 
 
 
require {
 
    type ntpd_t;
 
    type usr_t;
 
    type initrc_t;
 
    class sock_file write;
 
    class unix_stream_socket connectto;
 
}
 
 
 
#============= ntpd_t ==============
 
allow ntpd_t usr_t:sock_file write;
 
 
 
#============= ntpd_t ==============
 
allow ntpd_t initrc_t:unix_stream_socket connectto;
 
 
 
Check and load policy:
 
$ checkmodule -M -m -o samba4.mod samba4.te
 
$ semodule_package -o samba4.pp -m samba4.mod
 
$ semodule -i samba4.pp
 
 
 
== Step 12: Setup a File Share ==
 
 
 
The provisioning will create a very simple <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt> file with no non-system shares by
 
default. For the server to be useful you, will need to update it to
 
have at least one share. For example:
 
 
 
[test]
 
      path = /data/test
 
      comment = Test Share
 
      read only = no
 
 
 
*Note: In older alpha versions of Samba 4, you need to restart Samba to make new shares visible.
 
 
 
== Step 13: Setup a Printer share ==
 
 
 
You can share any printers already configured with CUPS, keep in mind that Samba communicates with CUPS via sockets, so you don't need to set any configure any special permissions beyond a listen directive for the CUPS socket.
 
 
 
=== Basic Print Sharing ===
 
 
 
# Create a print spool directory, and set the permissions properly. This is where Samba will store temporary files related to print documents:
 
mkdir /usr/local/samba/var/spool
 
chmod 1777 /usr/local/samba/var/spool
 
 
 
# Configure samba to use it, by adding the following to <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt>:
 
 
 
[printers]
 
    comment = All Printers
 
    path = /usr/local/samba/var/spool
 
    browseable = Yes
 
    read only = No
 
    printable = Yes
 
 
 
=== Point and Print Drivers ===
 
 
 
For the sake of convenience, Windows clients can query the server that is sharing a printer for a print driver.  To enable this functionality in Samba, we have to create a special <tt>print$</tt> file share.
 
 
 
# Create the print file share directory, and architecture sub-directories:
 
 
 
mkdir -p /usr/local/samba/var/print/{COLOR,IA64,W32ALPHA,W32MIPS,W32PPC,W32X86,WIN40,x64}
 
 
 
# Configure samba to use it, by adding the following to <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt>:
 
 
 
[print$]
 
    comment = Point and Print Printer Drivers
 
    path = /usr/local/samba/var/print
 
    read only = No
 
 
 
# Log in as a Domain Administrator on a client computer
 
# Click Start -> Run '\\samba\'
 
# In the list of shares, Double-Click 'Printers and Faxes'
 
# Click File -> Server Properties
 
# On the Drivers Tab, Click 'Add...', then 'Next'
 
#:[[Image:SambaServerDrivers.jpg]]
 
# In the following prompts, choose the driver you would like to install, and click 'Next'
 
#:[[Image:SambaServerChooseDriver.jpg]]
 
# Choose the architectures you are installing the drivers for.  Be aware if you choose an architecture that the client computer does not have the driver for you will be prompted to provide a disk with the drivers.
 
#:[[Image:SambaServerChooseArch.jpg]]
 
# Close the Server Driver Dialog box
 
# Right-click on the printer the driver is for and choose Properties
 
# On the Advanced tab, change the Driver drop-down box to the driver you just installed
 
 
 
== Note: Filesystem Support ==
 
 
 
This information has been included in the [[Samba_4_OS_Requirements#File_System_Support]]
 
 
 
= Configure a Windows Client to join a Samba 4 Active Directory =
 
 
 
Active Directory is a powerful administration service which enables an Administrator to centrally manage a network of Windows 2000, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2003, Windows Vista Business Edition, and Windows 7 Professional (and up) effectively. To test the real Samba capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Home doesn't include Active Directory functionality and won't work).
 
 
 
To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory.
 
It involves:
 
 
 
# Configuring DNS Settings
 
# Configuring Date & Time and Time Zone
 
# Joining the domain
 
 
 
== Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows ==
 
 
 
Before we configure the DNS settings, verify that you are able to ping the server's IP address. If you are not able to ping the server, double check your IP address, firewall, routing, etc.
 
 
 
Once you have verified network connectivity between the Samba server and client,
 
 
 
# Right Click My Network Places, Select Properties
 
# Right Click Local Area Network, Select Properties
 
# Double click TCP/IP
 
# Use a static DNS server, add the Samba server's IP address inside the Primary DNS Server Column.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4dnsclient.jpg]]
 
# Press OK on all opened windows.
 
# Open a command prompt, type 'ping samdom.example.com' (as per your provision).
 
 
 
If you get replies, then it means that your Windows settings are correct for DNS, and the Samba server's DNS service is working as well.
 
 
 
== Step 2: Configure Date & Time and Time Zone ==
 
 
 
Active Directory uses Kerberos as the backend for authentication. Kerberos requires that the system clocks on the client and server be synchronized to within a few seconds of each other.  If they are not synchronized, then authentication will fail for apparently no reason.
 
 
 
=== Configure the Date & Time ===
 
# Right-Click on the Time display in the system notification area, Select Adjust Date/Time.
 
# Change the Date and Time so the client matches the server to the minute, and click OK
 
#:[[Image:Samba4time.jpg]]
 
 
 
=== Configure the Time Zone ===
 
# Right-Click on the Time display in the system notification area, Select Adjust Date/Time.
 
# Click on the Time Zone Tab
 
# Change the Time Zone to match the Time Zone on the server.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4timezone.jpg]]
 
 
 
== Step 3: Joining Windows Clients to the Domain ==
 
 
 
Now your Windows computer is ready to join the Active Directory (AD) domain,
 
 
 
As an Administrator:
 
 
 
# Right Click My Computer -> Properties
 
# Choose the Computer Name tab, click Change...
 
# Click option 'Domain', insert SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.  If this fails, try SAMDOM.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4joindomain.jpg]]
 
# When it requests a username and password, type '''Administrator''' as the username, and '''p4$$word''' as the password.
 
# You should get a message box stating "Welcome to the SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM domain."
 
# Click OK on this message box and the Properties window, and you will be instructed to restart your computer.
 
# After restarting, you should be presented with the normal logon dialog.
 
# Change the domain to SAMDOM and type '''Administrator''' as the username, and '''p4$$word''' as the password.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4logindomain.jpg]]
 
 
 
= Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows =
 
 
 
We need install Windows 2003 Adminpak into Windows XP in order to use
 
GUI tools to manage the domain.  Before you begin, make sure that the domain
 
administrators have administrative rights to control your computer.(To
 
give any user administrative rights in Windows XP Pro, right click My
 
Computer, select Manage-> choose Groups-> double click Administrators
 
and add members from domain into the member list. When you add
 
members from Active Directory, it will prompt you to enter an
 
Active Directory username and password).
 
 
 
== Step 1: Installing Windows Remote Administration Tools onto Windows ==
 
 
 
=== Windows 8/7/Vista ===
 
 
 
#Download the  Windows Remote Administration Tools from:
 
#* http://www.microsoft.com/download/details.aspx?id=28972 (Windows 8)
 
#* http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=9FF6E897-23CE-4A36-B7FC-D52065DE9960&displaylang=en (Vista)
 
#* http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=7D2F6AD7-656B-4313-A005-4E344E43997D&displaylang=en (Windows 7)
 
#Follow the "Install RSAT" instructions ''(Just a note: After installing, you have to enable the features in "Turn Windows features on or off" in "Programs" of the Control Panel!)''.
 
  
=== Windows XP Pro ===
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
==== Administration Tools Pack & Support Tools ====
 
# Download adminpak and supporttools from:
 
#* http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=86b71a4f-4122-44af-be79-3f101e533d95
 
#* http://download.microsoft.com/download/3/e/4/3e438f5e-24ef-4637-abd1-981341d349c7/WindowsServer2003-KB892777-SupportTools-x86-ENU.exe
 
#:If you installed an older version of the adminpak, you'll notice the dial-in tab is missing from property pages. Just follow the link above to get SP2 which does not have this issue.
 
# Run through the installation.
 
# Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfully.  You can also find this at Start>Programs>Administrative Tools, which should have a lot more items now.
 
# Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support tools were installed correctly; if yes, then your XP workstation is ready to manage the Samba 4 Active Directory.
 
  
==== Group Policy Management Console ====
 
# You may also find the Group Policy Management Console useful. You can download it from
 
#* http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=0A6D4C24-8CBD-4B35-9272-DD3CBFC81887&displaylang=en
 
#:This is primarily useful when you have larger installs and are managing many machines. You may need to download the .NET Framework first.
 
 
== Step 2: Viewing Samba Active Directory Content ==
 
 
# When logged on as a Domain Administrator, start the Active Directory Users and Computers Snap-In, either by clicking Start -> Programs\Administrative Tools\Active Directory Users and Computers, or by clicking Start -> Run 'dsa.msc'
 
# Expand the samdom.example.com tree to see existing objects in the domain.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4dsa.msc.jpg]]
 
 
= Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From a Windows Client =
 
One of Samba 4's goals is to integrate with (and replace) Active Directory as a system.  At this point, if everything has worked correctly you should have an "Administrative Tools" menu under Programs.  If, under Administrative Tools you have "Active Directory Users and Computers", that is a very good sign.  Most times, if there is a configuration or bug in Samba, the AD Users & Computers (among other interfaces) won't show up as an option.  You can run it by hand (Start->Run->dsa.msc) but it's unlikely to work correctly.
 
 
 
== Step 1: Adding Users into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
Unlike Samba 3, Samba 4 does not require a local Unix user for each Samba user that is created.
 
 
To create a Samba user, use the following command:
 
 
/usr/local/samba/bin/samba-tool user add USERNAME
 
 
To inspect the allocated user ID and SID, use the following command:
 
 
$ /usr/local/samba/bin/wbinfo --name-to-sid USERNAME
 
S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005 SID_USER (1)
 
 
$ /usr/local/samba/bin/wbinfo --sid-to-uid S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
3000011
 
  
If you want to change this mapping, then use <tt>ldbedit<tt> on the <tt>/usr/local/samba/private/idmap.ldb</tt>, as shown:
 
  
$ ldbedit -e emacs -H /usr/local/samba/private/idmap.ldb objectsid=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
  
*Note: You can replace <tt>emacs</tt> with your editor of choice.
+
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
  
You will find records that look like this:
+
Kerberos requires a synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
  
# record 1
 
dn: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
cn: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
objectClass: sidMap
 
objectSid: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
type: ID_TYPE_BOTH
 
xidNumber: 3000011
 
distinguishedName: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
  
If you change the <tt>xidNumber</tt> attribute and save your editor then exit,
 
then Samba will update the mapping to between the SID and the user
 
ID. Updating group mappings works in the same way.
 
  
*Note: You can also manage users using the normal Windows AD user management tools.
 
  
= Setting Up Roaming Profiles =
 
  
1. You will need to create a share for the profiles, typically named <tt>profiles</tt>.  Edit the <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt> to include:
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
  
[profiles]
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
      path = /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
 
      read only = no
 
  
2. Create the directory above using:
+
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
 +
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
 +
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
  $ sudo mkdir /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
 
  
3. In Windows, start ''Active Directory Users and Computers'', select all the users, right click, and hit properties
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
  
4. Under the profile tab, in the ''Profile path'', type the path to your share along with %USERNAME% as follows:
+
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.
  
  \\sambaserver.samdom.example.com\profiles\%USERNAME%
 
  
5. click OK, logout and login as one of those users. When you logout again, you should see that the profile has been synced onto the samba server.
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
 +
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
  
*Note: An excellent walk-through on configuring Roaming Profiles and Folder Redirection is available [http://www.grouppolicy.biz/2010/08/best-practice-roaming-profiles-and-folder-redirection-a-k-a-user-virtualization/ here.]
 
  
= Adding Organization Units (OU) Into a Samba Domain =
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
  
The Organizational Unit (OU) is a powerful feature in Active
 
Directory. This is a type of container which allows you to drag & drop
 
users and/or computers into it.
 
  
We can link several types of group policies to an OU, and the settings
+
{{Imbox
will push out to all users/computers that sit under the OU. Withing a single domain,
+
| type = important
you can have as many OUs and sub-OUs as you'd like. The result is that
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
it can greatly reduce administrative overhead since you are able to
+
}}
manage everything via an OU. The implementation of Group Policy will
 
be discussed in the next chapter.
 
  
Before we create an OU, we must know what one looks like. By default
+
{{Imbox
we can see a sample OU called 'Domain Controllers', which uses a different
+
| type = important
icon in the Windows management tools than the 'users' and 'computers'
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
containers. We can deploy Group Policy to the users or the computers container.
+
}}
  
# To create an OU as the Domain Administrator, click Start -> Run -> dsa.msc
 
# Right click your domain.
 
# Select New -> Organizational Unit
 
# Type 'OU Demo'
 
# You will see a new OU appear, with the name 'OU Demo'.
 
# You can drag the user 'demo' into the new OU (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!).
 
# Right click 'OU Demo', A sub-OU can be created with New -> Organizational Unit.
 
  
Normally OUs are created according to the department setup of your
 
organization. Be careful not to confuse Groups and OUs. Groups are
 
used to control permissions, OUs are used for deploying settings to
 
all users/computers within the OU.
 
  
= Implementing Group Policies (GPO) in A Samba Domain =
 
  
Samba Active Directory has support for Goup Plicies, and can create
 
the Goup Plicy on the fly. The basic idea of Goup Plicies is:-
 
  
# Group Policies have two kinds of settings: computers and users.
+
= Troubleshooting =
# Computer settings apply to computers, while user settings apply to users.
 
# We link the group policy to a particular OU, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the OU.
 
# To add a group policy, right click 'OU Demo' OU->properties.
 
# Choose group policy.
 
# Press new, and name it as 'GP Demo'.
 
# Press edit to modify the policy.
 
# Here will demonstrate how to block users from access to the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'Administrative Templates'->'Control Panel'.
 
# Double click on 'Prohibit access to the Control Panel'.
 
# Press enabled and then press OK. Now the all users under 'OU Demo' won't able to access to the control panel.
 
# Make sure that the user 'demo' is inside the 'OU Demo' (You can drag and drop it).
 
# Logout and login as user 'demo'.
 
# You'll find user demo is not able to access control panel.
 
  
== Notes ==
+
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
:User configuration will take effect once you logout and login.
 
:Computer configuration will take effect when you restart the computer.
 
:GPO Password Policies are not read by Samba when assigning passwords, to change the policy that Samba uses you must use '''samba-tool domain passwordsettings'''
 
  
To learn more about managing and implementing organizational units, group policies, and Active Directory, try a web search for Google in Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.
 
  
= Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain =
 
  
Once you have a Samba domain controller set up, you can choose to join
 
additional domain controllers to the domain, whether they be
 
additional Samba domain controllers, or additional Windows domain
 
controllers.
 
  
If you wish to join an additional Samba domain controller to a domain,
 
then please see the [[Samba4/HOWTO/Join a domain as a DC|Joining a domain as a DC]] page. The instructions
 
on that page are the same for joining Samba to a Windows domain as
 
they are for joining Samba to an existing Samba domain.
 
  
If you wish to join a new Windows domain controller to a Samba domain,
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
then you should use the 'dcpromo' tool on the Windows machine. Please
 
see the normal instructions for installing dcpromo on Windows, with
 
the exception that you should not check the 'DNS server' option box
 
when it is offered. Right now you should either use Windows for DNS,
 
or use Samba and bind9 for DNS. Mixing the two can work, but it is an
 
advanced topic that is beyond the scope of this howto.
 
  
= Migrating an Existing Samba  Domain to Samba  =
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
  
It is very likely that you already have a running Samba3 domain on your network.  The question is, how do you migrate that domain and all of its users and machines over to a new Samba 4 based domain without having to move every user profile and machine to the new domain?  The answer is the [[Samba4/samba-tool/domain/classicupgrade/HOWTO|samba-tool domain classicupgrade]] function.
 
  
= Connecting other services to your new/migrated Active Directory =
 
  
If you finished setting up or migrating to Samba 4, you maybe want to connect other services
 
to your new Active Directory. Have a look at the [[Samba4/beyond|Beyond Samba]] page.
 
  
= Report Your Success/Failure! =
 
  
Samba, as a replicating domain controller, is still developing rapidly.
+
----
We'd like to hear from users about their successes and
+
[[Category:Domain Control]]
failures. We would encourage you to report both your successes and failures
+
[[Category:Active Directory]]
to the [mailto:samba-technical@lists.samba.org samba-technical] mailing list on http://lists.samba.org
 

Latest revision as of 08:03, 26 April 2019

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost localhost.localdomain
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the domain and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires a synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.


To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.