Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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= Samba4 HOWTO =
+
= Introduction =
  
This document explains how to setup a simple Samba4
+
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
server. This is aimed at people who are already familiar with Samba3
 
and wish to participate in Samba4 development or test the alpha
 
releases of Samba4. This is not aimed at general production use of
 
Samba4, although some brave sites are running Samba4 in production
 
based on these instructions.
 
  
== Video demonstrations of this HOWTO ==
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].
  
A set of [[samba4/videos|demonstration videos]] is available that
+
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
may provide a useful overview of this contents of this HOWTO
+
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
== A note on alpha versions ==
+
= Preparing the Installation =
  
Samba4 is developing very rapidly. This HOWTO is frequently updated to reflect the latest changes in the Samba git repository.  Please see the Samba4 [[Samba4/Status|Status]] Wiki for more specifics on project status.
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
 +
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  
== Step 1: Download Samba4 ==
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
 +
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
If you have downloaded the Samba4 code via a tarball released from the
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
samba.org website, Step 1 has already been completed for you.  For testing
 
with the version released in the tarball, you may continue on to Step 2.
 
  
Note that the references below to the top-level directory named
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
"samba-master" will instead be based on the name of the tarball
 
downloaded (e.g. "samba-4.0.0alpha13" for the tarball
 
samba-4.0.0alpha13.tar.gz).  Also note that in the "master" branch the
 
samba4 code in our current git tree is now located in the top level
 
directory.
 
  
Otherwise there are two methods for downloading the current samba version:
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
 +
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
* via git
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
* via rsync
+
127.0.0.1    localhost
 +
10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
If you don't have rsync or git then install one of them, or stick to the latest tarball release.
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
If you have a choice, we strongly recommend using the git method for
+
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
downloading Samba, as it makes getting updates easier, and also allows
 
you to integrate test patches from Samba developers more easily in
 
case of problems.
 
  
=== git ===
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
 +
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  
  $ git clone git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba-master; cd samba-master
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
  
or via http:
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
 +
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
 +
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
 +
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
  $ git clone http://gitweb.samba.org/samba.git samba-master; cd samba-master
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  
This will create a directory called "samba-master" in the current
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
directory.
 
  
If you want to update the tree to the latest version run:
+
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
  
  $ git pull
 
  
=== rsync ===
 
  
  $ rsync -avz samba.org::ftp/unpacked/samba_4_0_test/ samba-master
 
  
Note that the above rsync command will give you a checked out git
 
repository, but it needs some changes so that you can update it using git:
 
  
  $ cd samba-master/
+
= Installing Samba =
  $ rm .git/refs/tags/*
 
  $ rm -r .git/refs/remotes/
 
  $ git config remote.origin.url git://git.samba.org/samba.git
 
  $ git config --add remote.origin.fetch +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* (this line is optional)
 
  $ git fetch
 
  
Note you can ignore this error from git fetch:
+
{{:Installing_Samba}}
error: refs/heads/master does not point to a valid object!
 
  
You can update it to the latest version at some future date using:
 
  
  $ git pull
 
  
If you get an error like this:
 
  fatal: Unable to create '[...]/samba_master/.git/index.lock': File exists.
 
remove the lock file and try running "git pull" again.
 
  
== Step 2: Compile Samba4 ==
 
  
Required development libraries:
+
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
*Python development libraries (python-dev in Debian/Ubuntu) required to compile
 
  
Recommended optional development libraries:
+
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
*acl and xattr development libraries (libacl1-dev, libattr1-dev packages in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*blkid development libraries (libblkid-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*gnutls (libgnutls-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*readline (libreadline-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*openldap (libldap2-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu; openldap2-devel in openSUSE) is required to build the Samba3 components with LDAP support. Lacking this library the build will complete but attempts to provision (via upgrade) an Active Directory domain from an existing Samba3 LDAP backend will fail.
 
  
For Debian/Ubuntu:
+
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
$ apt-get install build-essential libacl1-dev libattr1-dev \
 
    libblkid-dev libgnutls-dev libreadline-dev python-dev \
 
    python-dnspython gdb pkg-config libpopt-dev libldap2-dev \
 
    bind9utils dnsutils
 
  
For Fedora:
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
  
$ yum install libacl-devel libblkid-devel gnutls-devel \
 
    readline-devel python-devel gdb pkgconfig
 
  
For Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.x or CentOS 6.x:
+
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
  
  $ yum install libacl-devel libblkid-devel gnutls-devel \
+
  # samba-tool domain provision --help
    readline-devel python-devel gdb pkgconfig krb5-workstation
 
$ yum install zlib-devel setroubleshoot-server \
 
    setroubleshoot-plugins policycoreutils-python \
 
    libsemanage-python setools-libs-python setools-libs \
 
    popt-devel libpcap-devel sqlite-devel libidn-devel \
 
    libxml2-devel libacl-devel libsepol-devel libattr-devel \
 
    keyutils-libs-devel cyrus-sasl-devel
 
  
For openSUSE 11.4 or openSUSE 12.1:
 
  
$ zypper install libacl-devel python-selinux autoconf make \
+
{{Imbox
    python-devel gdb sqlite3-devel libgnutls-devel binutils \
+
| type = note
    policycoreutils-python setools-libs selinux-policy \
+
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. There are no disadvantages to enabling the NIS extensions, but enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
    setools-libs popt-devel libpcap-devel keyutils-devel \
+
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
    libidn-devel libxml2-devel libacl-devel libsepol-devel \
+
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
    libattr-devel zlib-devel cyrus-sasl-devel gcc \
+
}}
    krb5-client openldap2-devel libopenssl-devel
 
  
For Gentoo:
 
  
$ USE="dlz python gssapi" emerge cyrus-sasl heimdal bind bind-tools gnutls dnspython gdb libidn subunit
 
$ ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~amd64" USE="python" emerge =sys-libs/tdb-1.2.10 =sys-libs/tevent-0.9.15 =sys-libs/ldb-1.1.6
 
Obviously that would be ~x86 instead of ~amd64 on a x86 arch, also don't forget to
 
$ eselect python set 1
 
where 1 is python 2.X (3.X is not yet supported) if you don't know which version you are using, '''eselect python list''' will give you a list of available ones.
 
  
To build, run this:
+
== Parameter Explanation ==
  
  $ cd samba-master
+
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
  $ ./configure.developer
 
  $ make
 
  
The above command will setup Samba4 to install in /usr/local/samba. If
+
{| class="wikitable"
you want Samba to install somewhere else then you should use the
+
!Interactive Mode Setting
--prefix option to configure.developer.
+
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
  
The reason we recommend using configure.developer rather than
+
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
configure for Samba4 alpha releases is that it will include extra
+
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
debug information that will help us diagnose problems in case of
 
failures. It will also allow you to run the various builtin automatic
 
tests.
 
  
== Step 3: Install Samba4 ==
 
  
Run this as a user who have permission to write to the install
+
{{Imbox
directory (which defaults to /usr/local/samba). Use --prefix option to
+
| type = note
configure.developer above to change this.
+
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
+
}}
  $ make install
 
  
For the rest of this HOWTO we will assume that you have installed
+
{{Imbox
Samba4 in the default location, which is /usr/local/samba.
+
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
== Step 4: Provision Samba4 ==
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
 +
}}
  
The "provision" step sets up a basic user database, and is used when you are setting up your Samba4
 
server in its own domain. If you instead want to setup your Samba4 server as an additional domain controller
 
in an existing domain, then please see the separate page on [[Samba4 joining a domain]].  If you want to migrate an existing Samba3 domain to Samba4, see the [[#Migrating an Existing Samba3 Domain to Samba4|Migrating an Existing Samba3 Domain to Samba4]] section on this page.
 
  
In the following examples we will assume your DNS domain name is
 
'samdom.example.com' and your short (also known as NT4) domain name is
 
'samdom'. We will assume that your Samba servers hostname is samba.
 
  
It must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory (which means you may need to run this command with sudo)
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
  
  # /usr/local/samba/sbin/provision \
+
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
    --realm=samdom.example.com --domain=SAMDOM \
 
    --adminpass=SOMEPASSWORD --server-role=dc
 
  
If you get an error like this:
+
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
  tdb_open_ex: could not open file /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/DC=SAMDOM,DC=EXAMPLE,DC=COM. ldb: Permission denied
+
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
then you need to rerun with sudo
+
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
  DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
  Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:       SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
  
Troubleshooting note:
+
{{Imbox
you may need to rm the smb.conf file if you failed to pass valid names and provision previously failed
+
| type = note
 +
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
 +
}}
  
There are many other options you can pass to the 'provision' command, run it with the --help option to see a list of them.
 
  
*Note: when using debian SID samba4 package, provision script and samba4 installation will abort if <tt>hostname -d</tt> is returning an empty string (domainname not found). Indeed debian4.config script get REALM as follow <tt>REALM=`hostname -d | tr 'a-z' 'A-Z'`</tt>. So check /etc/resolv.conf contains:
 
domain ''samdom.example.com''
 
  
== Step 5: Starting Samba4 ==
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
  
If you are planning to run Samba4 as a production server, then just run the "samba" binary as root
+
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
 +
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
 +
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
  
  # samba
+
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
  
That will run Samba4 in 'standard' mode, which is suitable for
 
production use. Samba4 alpha13 doesn't yet have init scripts included
 
for each platform, but making one for your platform should not be
 
difficult.
 
  
If you are running Samba4 as a developer you may find
 
the following more useful:
 
  
  # samba -i -M single
 
  
that means start "samba" with messages in stdout, and running a
 
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging "samba" with gdb
 
particularly easy. If you want to launch it under gdb, then the following
 
example could be useful:
 
  
  $ sudo gdb --args bin/samba -i -M single
+
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
  
Note that if you are running any Samba3 smbd or nmbd processes
+
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
they need to be stopped before starting "samba" from Samba 4.
 
  
Make sure you put the bin and sbin directories from your new install
+
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
in your $PATH or you may end up running the wrong version. You can see what version
 
you have by running "samba -V".
 
  
Note: in older developer versions of samba4 "samba" was still called "smbd".
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
 +
# systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
== Step 6: Testing Samba4 ==
 
  
=== smbclient ===
 
  
First check you have the right version of smbclient in your $PATH
 
  
  $ smbclient --version
+
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
  
This should show you a version starting with "Version 4.0.XXXXX".  
+
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
  
Now try this command:
+
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>search</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
  
  $ smbclient -L localhost -U%
+
search samdom.example.com
 +
nameserver 10.99.0.1
  
That should show you a list of shares available on your server. For example:
 
  
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 
        ---------      ----      -------
 
        test            Disk
 
        netlogon        Disk
 
        sysvol          Disk
 
        IPC$            IPC        IPC Service (Samba 4.0.0alpha12-GIT-5e755e9)
 
        ADMIN$          Disk      DISK Service (Samba 4.0.0alpha12-GIT-5e755e9)
 
  
The 'netlogon' and 'sysvol' shares are basic shares needed for Active Directory server
 
operation.
 
  
To test that authentication is working, you should try to connect to the netlogon share
 
using the administrator password you set earlier.
 
  
  $ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -Uadministrator%PASSWORD
+
= Create a reverse zone =
  
You should get a "smb>" prompt, and access to your netlogon directory.
+
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
  
== Step 7 Create a share in smb.conf ==
+
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
 +
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 +
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
  
The provisioning will create a very simple smb.conf with no shares by
+
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
default. For the server to be useful you will need to update it to
 
have at least one share. For example:
 
  
  [test]
+
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
        path = /data/test
 
        read only = no
 
  
Note that in current alpha versions of Samba4 you need to restart Samba
 
to make new shares visible. This will be fixed in a future release.
 
  
== Step 8 Configure DNS ==
 
  
A working DNS setup is essential to the correct operation of
 
Samba4. Without the right DNS entries, kerberos won't work, which in
 
turn means that many of the basic features of Samba4 won't work.
 
  
It is worth spending some extra time to ensure your DNS setup is just
 
right, as debugging problems caused by mis-configured DNS can take a
 
lot of time later on.
 
  
The simplest way to get a working DNS setup for Samba4 is to start
+
= Configuring Kerberos =
with the DNS zone and configuration files that are created by the
 
'provision' step above. If you look in /usr/local/samba/private
 
directory, you'll find a file called 'named.conf' and another one
 
called samdom.example.com.zone in the dns subdirectory (adjusted for your real DNS domain name
 
of course!).
 
  
Assuming your have a bind9 DNS server installed, you can activate the
+
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
configuration that the provision has created by adding a line like
 
this to /etc/bind/named.conf.local:
 
  
  include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf";
+
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
  
After adding that line you should restart your bind server and check
+
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
in the system logs for any problems.
 
  
One common problem is that many modern Linux distributions activate
+
{{Imbox
'Apparmor' or 'SELinux' by default, and these may be configured to
+
| type = important
deny access to bind for your the named.conf and zone files created in
+
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
the provision. If your bind logs show that bind is getting a access
+
}}
denied error accessing these files then please see your local system
 
documentation for how to enable access to these files in bind (hint:
 
for Apparmor systems such as Ubuntu, the command aa-logprof may be
 
useful).
 
  
Now you need to test that DNS is working correctly. Check that your
+
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
/etc/resolv.conf is pointing correctly at your local DNS server, then
 
run the following commands:
 
  
  $ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 
  _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 samba.samdom.example.com.
 
  
  $ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 
  _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 samba.samdom.example.com.
 
  
  $ host -t A samba.samdom.example.com.
 
  samba.samdom.example.com has address 10.0.0.1
 
  
Check that you get answers similar to the ones above (adjusted for
 
your DNS domain name and hostname). If you get any errors then
 
carefully check your system logs to find and fix the problem.
 
  
*Note: One of the problems I've had on Debian system is that the zone autogeneration always detects, and uses, 127.0.1.1 as the domain controller's IP address.  That works fine until you 1) Don't have a 127.0.1.1 interface on the machine or 2) Go to join your first client to the domain.  In /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf you might need to change 127.0.1.1 to reflect the actual IP address of the server you're setting up.
+
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
*Note: On debian SID (bind9 package), /etc/bind/named.conf.options is missing and prevent named daemon to be started and installation to be completed (create an empty file or comment out corresponding line in /etc/bind/named.conf see syslog messages)
 
  
== Step 9: Testing kerberos ==
+
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
Once DNS is working, you should test that kerberos server builtin to
 
Samba4 is working correctly.
 
  
Before testing, first configure the krb.conf file (/etc/krb.conf on RHEL like systems), replace the existing one with the sample from /usr/local/samba/share/setup/krb5.conf.
+
# samba
Edit the file and replace ${REALM} with you domain name.
 
  
The easiest test is to use the kinit command like this:
+
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
 +
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
 +
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
  
  $ kinit administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
  Password:
 
  
''Note:''<br>
 
: You have to give your 'domain realm SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM' in <b>uppercase letters</b> to kinit.
 
  
The kinit should completely successfully. After it completes you can
+
== Verifying the File Server ==
examine the received ticket like this:
 
  
  $ klist -e
+
To list all shares provided by the DC:
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_1000
 
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
 
 
  Valid starting    Expires            Service principal
 
  02/10/10 19:39:48  02/11/10 19:39:46  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
        Etype (skey, tkt): ArcFour with HMAC/md5, ArcFour with HMAC/md5
 
  
If you find you don't have kinit or klist, you may need to install them. On debian based
+
Before Samba 4.11.0:
systems (such as Ubuntu) the packages are called krb5-config and krb5-user.
 
  
You can also test kerberos form a remote client, just make sure you have configure the
+
$ smbclient -L localhost -N
krb5.conf and the resolve.conf to point to the domain controller IP address.
+
Anonymous login successful
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
        ---------      ----      -------
 +
        netlogon        Disk     
 +
        sysvol          Disk     
 +
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Server              Comment
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 +
        Workgroup            Master
 +
        ---------            -------
  
''Note:''<br>
+
From Samba 4.11.0:
: If you are using a client behind NAT then you have to add the following to the krb5.conf on the domain controller server:
 
  
  [kdc]
+
smbclient -L localhost -N
       check-ticket-addresses = false
+
Anonymous login successful
 +
 +
    Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
    ---------      ----      -------
 +
    sysvol          Disk     
 +
    netlogon       Disk     
 +
    IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
 +
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available
  
== Step 10 Configure kerberos DNS dynamic updates (optional) ==
 
  
To setup dynamic DNS updates you need to have a recent version of bind9 installed. It is highly recommended that you install at least version 9.8.0 as that version includes a set of patches from the Samba Team to make dynamic DNS updates much more robust and easier to configure. In the instructions below we give instructions for both bind 9.7.2 and 9.8.0, but please use 9.8.0 or later if at all possible.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
  
For Debian Lenny:
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
  
If you also want to use Dynamically Loadable Zones (DLZ) then you should add the corresponding option (dlopen) depending on your version of bind.
+
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
If you are about to compile a downloaded tarball you might need these libraries: libkrb5-dev and libssl-dev
+
Enter Administrator's password:
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
  .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
  ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
 +
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
  
  $ apt-get install libkrb5-dev libssl-dev
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  $ tar -zxvf bind9.x.x.tar.gz
 
  $ cd bind9.x.x
 
  
Bind9.8.0
 
  
  $ ./configure --with-gssapi=/usr/include/gssapi  --with-dlz-dlopen=yes
 
  
Bind9.8.1
+
== Verifying DNS ==
  
  $ ./configure --with-gssapi=/usr/include/gssapi  --with-dlopen=yes
+
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
  
  $ make
+
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
  $ make install
 
  
You can tell what version of bind9 you have using the command "/usr/sbin/named -V". If your OS does not have bind9 9.8.0 or later, then please consider getting it from a package provided by a 3rd party (for example, on Ubuntu there is a ppa available with the newer versions of bind9).
+
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
=== Instructions for bind9 9.8.0 or later ===
+
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
  
When using bind9 9.8.0 or later you should add a line like the following to the options section of your bind9 config:
+
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
  options {
+
  _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  [...]
 
  tkey-gssapi-keytab "/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab";
 
  [...]
 
  };
 
  
On some systems (such as Ubuntu) this is located in /etc/bind/named.conf.options. Otherwise look for the "options {" part of your bind9 configuration.
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
  
You also need an include line pointing at the named.conf in the private directory of your Samba install (this file is created by the provision command):
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
  include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf";
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
On Debian based systems (such as Ubuntu) this include line is normally put in /etc/bind/named.conf.local. On RedHat based systems it goes in /etc/named.conf.
 
  
=== Instructions for bind9 9.7.x ===
 
  
If you have bind9 9.7.x (specifically 9.7.2 or later), then first determine if you can
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
at all possibly run bind 9.8.  You will have far fewer problems.  Otherwise, follow these instructions.
 
  
The Samba provision will have created a custom named.conf.update configuration file in the private directory of your Samba install. You need to include in your master named.conf to allow Samba/Kerberos DNS updates to automatically take place.  Be advised that if you include this file in Bind versions that don't support it, Bind will fail to start.
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
  
You additionally need to set two environment variables for bind9 when using bind9 version 9.7.x:
+
$ kinit administrator
 +
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  
  KEYTAB_FILE="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
+
: {{Imbox
  KRB5_KTNAME="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
+
| type = note
  export KEYTAB_FILE
+
| text = If you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command, the Kerberos realm is automatically appended.<br />Always enter the Kerberos realm in uppercase.
  export KRB5_KTNAME
+
}}
  
These should be put in your settings file for bind9. On Debian based
+
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
systems (including Ubuntu) this is in /etc/default/bind9. On RedHat and SUSE derived systems it is
 
in /etc/sysconfig/named. Strictly speaking you only either need
 
KEYTAB_FILE or KRB5_KTNAME, but which you need depends on your distro,
 
so it's easier to just set both.
 
  
The dns.keytab must be readable by the bind server user this could be accomplished by executing:
+
$ klist
  $ chown named.named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
+
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
 
+
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
(the provision should have setup these permissions for you automatically).
+
   
 
+
  Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
Then in your /etc/bind/named.conf.options you need this:
+
  01.11.2016 08:45:00 12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
+
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
    tkey-gssapi-credential "DNS/server.samdom.example.com";
 
    tkey-domain "SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM";
 
 
 
The last part of the credential in the first line must match the dns name of the server you have set up.
 
 
 
=== Debugging dynamic DNS updates ===
 
 
 
The way the automatic DNS update in Samba works is that the provision
 
will create a file /usr/local/samba/private/dns_update_list, which
 
contains a list of DNS entries that Samba will try to dynamically
 
update at startup and every 10 minutes thereafter using samba_dnsupdate utility.
 
Updates will only happen if the DNS entries do not already exist.
 
Remember that you need nsupdate utility from bind distribution
 
for all these to work (dnsutils package in Debian/Ubuntu).
 
 
 
If you want to debug this process, then please run this as root:
 
 
 
  /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba_dnsupdate --verbose
 
 
 
that will give you more information on the updates that Samba is doing
 
at runtime, and show you any errors that are generated.
 
 
 
=== Interaction with apparmor or SELinux ===
 
 
 
Now you have to ensure that bind can read the dns.keytab file, the
 
named.conf file and the zone file. It also needs to be able to write
 
the zone file. The Samba provision tries to setup the permissions
 
correctly for these files, but you may find you need to make changes
 
in your Apparmor or SELinux configuration if you are running either of
 
those. If you are using Apparmor then the aa-logprof command may help
 
you add any missing permissions you need to add after you start Samba
 
and bind9 for the first time after configuring them.
 
 
 
You should also carefully check the permissions on the private/dns directory to ensure it is writeable by bind.
 
 
 
== Step 11 Configure NTP (optional) ==
 
 
 
RedHat 6.x:
 
Redhat does not provide a recent NTP version to support signed ntp so a newer version is required.
 
 
 
1. Download NTP =>4.2.6 release from ntp.org ( verify md5 sum )
 
 
 
2. Download the Redhat 6.1 ntp source rpm file from RedHat and install.
 
 
 
3. Edit the ntp.spec and remove all lines regarding patches and correct the version number.
 
 
 
4. Here is a <b>partial</b> diff showing required edits then run  <i>$ rpmbuild -ba ntp.spec</i>
 
  218c115
 
  < --enable-linuxcaps
 
  ---
 
  > --enable-linuxcaps --enable-ntp-signd
 
  327a225
 
  > %{_sbindir}/sntp
 
  345,346c243,244
 
  < %{_mandir}/man8/ntptime.8*
 
  < %{_mandir}/man8/tickadj.8*
 
  ---
 
  > %{_mandir}/man8/ntpdtime.8*
 
  > #%{_mandir}/man8/tickadj.8*
 
  352c250
 
  < %{_mandir}/man8/ntp-wait.8*
 
  ---
 
  > #%{_mandir}/man8/ntp-wait.8*
 
 
 
For Debian/Ubuntu:
 
 
 
Recent versions of Debian/Ubuntu already contain a version of ntp with support for signing. For older versions (Debian Squeeze, Ubuntu < 11.04), get a recent version of ntp:
 
 
 
  $ tar -zxvf ntp-4.x.x.tar.gz
 
  $ cd ntp-4.x.x
 
  $ ./configure --enable-ntp-signd
 
  $ make
 
  $ make install
 
 
 
5. TODO  ( add example ntp.conf changes )
 
   
 
  # A simple ntp.conf tested in Debian Lenny
 
  # Using the hardware clock
 
  server 127.127.1.1
 
  fudge 127.127.1.1  stratum 12
 
  ntpsigndsocket /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd/
 
  restrict default mssntp
 
  [...]
 
 
 
== NOTES on permissions, SELinux labeling and policy ==
 
 
 
RedHat 6.X:
 
 
 
There is still more work TODO in regards of creating a Samba4 specific SELinux policy but for now you should be
 
able to have everything working *without* disabling SELinux.
 
 
 
Based on the provision example above set this ENV for commands below :
 
  MYREALM="samdom.example.com"
 
 
 
Change permissions:
 
  chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
  chgrp named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
  chmod g+r /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
  chmod 775 /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
 
 
Label files ( ensure $MYREALM is correct ):
 
  chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
  chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
 
  chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
  chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
 
 
 
 
 
Needed for persistence of labels ( ensure $MYREALM is correct ):
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd
 
 
 
NOTE: Multiple attempts to set the context for ntp failed so (below) policy was needed for windows clients time sync after joining the DOMAIN.
 
  $ chcon -u system_u -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd
 
  $ chcon -u system_u -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/
 
  $ chcon -t ntpd_t /usr/local/samba/var/run/ntp_signd/socket
 
 
 
samba4.te policy:
 
  module samba4 1.0;
 
 
 
 
 
    require {
 
    type ntpd_t;
 
    type usr_t;
 
    type initrc_t;
 
    class sock_file write;
 
    class unix_stream_socket connectto;
 
  }
 
 
 
  #============= ntpd_t ==============
 
  allow ntpd_t usr_t:sock_file write;
 
 
 
  #============= ntpd_t ==============
 
  allow ntpd_t initrc_t:unix_stream_socket connectto;
 
 
 
Check and load policy:
 
  $ checkmodule -M -m -o samba4.mod samba4.te
 
  $ semodule_package -o samba4.pp -m samba4.mod
 
  $ semodule -i samba4.pp
 
 
 
== NOTE about filesystem support ==
 
 
 
To use the advanced features of Samba4 you need a filesystem that
 
supports both the "user" and "system" xattr namespaces.
 
 
 
If you run Linux with a 2.6 kernel and ext3 this means you need to
 
include the option "user_xattr" in your /etc/fstab. For example:
 
 
 
/dev/hda3              /home                  ext3    user_xattr    1 1
 
 
 
You also need to compile your kernel with the XATTR and SECURITY
 
options for your filesystem. For ext3 that means you need:
 
 
 
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_XATTR=y
 
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_SECURITY=y
 
  
If you are running a Linux 2.6 kernel with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
defined you can check this with the following command:
 
  
  $ zgrep CONFIG_EXT3_FS /proc/config.gz
 
  
If you don't have a filesystem with xattr support, then you can
 
simulate it by using the option:
 
  
  posix:eadb = /usr/local/samba/eadb.tdb
 
 
that will place all extra file attributes (NT ACLs, DOS EAs, streams
 
etc), in that tdb. It is not efficient, and doesn't scale well, but at
 
least it gives you a choice when you don't have a modern filesystem.
 
 
=== Testing your filesystem ===
 
 
To test your filesystem support, install the 'attr' package and run
 
the following 4 commands as root:
 
 
  # touch test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n user.test -v test test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n security.test -v test2 test.txt
 
  # getfattr -d test.txt
 
  # getfattr -n security.test -d test.txt
 
 
You should see output like this:
 
 
  # file: test.txt
 
  user.test="test"
 
 
  # file: test.txt
 
  security.test="test2"
 
 
If you get any "Operation not supported" errors then it means your
 
kernel is not configured correctly, or your filesystem is not mounted
 
with the right options.
 
 
If you get any "Operation not permitted" errors then it probably means
 
you didn't try the test as root.
 
 
If you are using the posix:eadb option then you don't need to test your filesystem in this manner.
 
 
== Profiling with google-perftools ==
 
 
LDFLAGS="-ltcmalloc -lprofiler" ./configure --enable-developer .....
 
 
This also works for CFLAGS
 
 
= Configure a Windows Client to join a Samba 4 Active Directory =
 
 
Active Directory is a powerful administration service which enables an administrator to centrally manage a network of Windows 2000, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2003, and Windows Vista Business Edition effectively. To test the real Samba 4 capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Home doesn't include Active Directory functionality and won't work).
 
 
To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory.
 
It involves:
 
 
# Configuring DNS Setting
 
# Configuring date/time and time zone
 
# Joining the domain
 
 
== Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows ==
 
 
Before we configure the DNS setting, verify that you are able to ping the Server's IP Address. If you are not able to ping the server, double check your IP address, firewall, routing, etc.
 
 
Once you have verified network connectivity between the Samba server and client,
 
 
# Right Click My Network Places -> Properties
 
# Double click local area network->Properties
 
# Double click tcp/ip
 
# Use static dns server, add the Samba 4 server's ip address inside the primary dns server column.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4dnsclient.jpg]]
 
# Press ok, ok, ok again until finished.
 
# Open a command prompt, type 'ping servername.your.realm' (change to suit your custom realm per your provision)
 
 
If you get replies, then it means your Windows XP settings are correct (for DNS) and Samba4 Server's DNS services is working as well.
 
 
== Step 2: Configure date/time and time zone ==
 
 
Active Directory uses Kerberos as the backend for authentication. Kerberos requires that the system clock on the client and server be synchronized to within a few seconds of each other.  If they are not synchronized, authentication will fail for apparently no reason.
 
 
# Change the timezone in Windows XP Pro so that server and client using same time zone. In my computer, I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur (I come from Malaysia).
 
#:[[Image:Samba4timezone.jpg]]
 
# Change the date/time so the client have same HH:MM with the server.
 
#:[[Image:Samba4time.jpg]]
 
 
== Step 3: Joining the Windows client into domain ==
 
 
Now your Windows is ready to join the Active Directory (AD) domain,
 
 
As administrator:-
 
 
# Right Click my Computer-> Properties
 
# Choose Computer Name, click change..
 
# Click option 'Domain', insert YOUR.REALM (if you failed, try YOURDOM)([[Image:Samba4joindomain.jpg]]
 
# When it request username/password, type '''administrator''' as username, '''SOMEPASSWORD''' as password (per your earlier provision).
 
# It will tell you the Windows XP has successfully join into Active Directory Domain, and you need to restart.
 
# After restart, you should get the normal domain logon dialog
 
# Choose domain YOURDOM, insert username '''administrator''' as username, '''SOMEPASSWORD''' as password (again, per your earlier provision)
 
# If you login successfully, then you able to enjoy samba 4 active directory services at next section.
 
 
= Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows =
 
 
We need install windows 2003 adminpak into windows XP in order to use
 
GUI tools to manage the domain.  Before begin, make sure the domain
 
administrator have administrative right to control your computer.(To
 
give any user administrative right, in Windows XP Pro, right click my
 
computer, press manage-> choose groups-> double click administrators
 
and add members from domain into the member list. During you add
 
member from active directory as member, it will prompt you to enter
 
active directory username/password).
 
 
== Step 1: Installing Windows Remote Administration Tools onto Windows ==
 
 
=== Windows7 ===
 
 
#Download the  Windows Remote Administration Tools from
 
#: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=7D2F6AD7-656B-4313-A005-4E344E43997D&displaylang=en
 
#and follow the "Install RSAT" instructions
 
 
=== Vista ===
 
 
Download the  Windows Remote Administration Tools from
 
* http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=9FF6E897-23CE-4A36-B7FC-D52065DE9960&displaylang=en
 
 
and follow the "Install RSAT" instruction described at
 
* http://support.microsoft.com/kb/941314
 
 
=== Windows XP Pro ===
 
 
# In Windows XP, download adminpak and supporttools from
 
#* http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=86b71a4f-4122-44af-be79-3f101e533d95
 
#* http://download.microsoft.com/download/3/e/4/3e438f5e-24ef-4637-abd1-981341d349c7/WindowsServer2003-KB892777-SupportTools-x86-ENU.exe
 
#:If you installed an older version of the adminpak, you'll notice the dial-in tab is missing from property pages. Just follow the link above to get SP2 which does not have this issue.
 
# Run through the installation.
 
# Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfully.  You can also find this at Start>Programs>Administrative Tools, which should have a lot more items now.
 
# Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support tools were installed correctly; if yes, then your XP workstation is ready to manage the Samba 4 Active Directory.
 
 
== Step 2: Viewing samba 4 active directory content ==
 
 
# Login as domain 'testing1.org' administrator, press start->run.
 
# type dsa.msc
 
#:[[Image:Samba4run.jpg ]]
 
# Expand the testing1.org tree to see existing object in domain. [[Image:Samba4dsa.msc.jpg]]
 
 
= Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From Windows XP Pro =
 
One of Samba4's goals is to integrate with (and replace) Active Directory as a system.  At this point, if everything has worked correctly you should have an "Administrative Tools" menu under Programs.  If, under Administrative Tools you have "Active Directory Users and Computers", that is a very good sign.  Most times, if there is a configuration or bug in Samba4, the AD Users & Computers (among other interfaces) won't show up as an option.  You can run it by hand (Start->Run->dsa.msc) but it's unlikely to work correctly.
 
 
 
== Step 1: Adding user into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
Unlike Samba3, Samba4 does not require a local unix user for each Samba user that is created.
 
 
To create a Samba user, use the command
 
 
samba-tool user add USERNAME
 
 
To inspect the allocated user ID and SID, use wbinfo
 
 
$ bin/wbinfo --name-to-sid USERNAME
 
S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005 SID_USER (1)
 
 
$ bin/wbinfo --sid-to-uid S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
3000011
 
  
If you want to change this mapping, then use ldbedit on the idmap.idb,
 
like this:
 
  
$ bin/ldbedit -e emacs -H /usr/local/samba/private/idmap.ldb objectsid=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
+
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
  
You will find records that look like this:
+
Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> or <code>chrony</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
  
# record 1
 
dn: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
cn: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
objectClass: sidMap
 
objectSid: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
type: ID_TYPE_BOTH
 
xidNumber: 3000011
 
distinguishedName: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
  
If you change the xidNumber attribute and save your editor then exit,
 
then Samba will update the mapping to between the SID and the user
 
ID. Updating group mappings works in the same way.
 
  
You can also manage users using the normal Windows AD user management
 
tools.
 
  
= Setting Up Roaming Profiles (Windows 7) =
 
  
1. You will need to create a share for the profiles, typically named '''profiles'''. Edit the ''/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf'' to include:
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
  
  [profiles]
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
        path = /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
 
        read only = no
 
  
2. Create the directory above using:
+
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
 +
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
 +
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
  $ sudo mkdir /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
 
  
3. On windows start the ''Active Directory Users and Computers'', select all the users, right click and hit properties
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
  
4. Under the profile tab, in the ''Profile path'' type the path to your share along with %USERNAME% as follows:
+
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.
  
  \\sambaserver.samdom.example.com\profiles\%USERNAME%
+
You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set <code>vfs objects = recycle</code> in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects <code>dfs_samba4</code> and <code>acl_xattr</code>. You must set <code>vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle</code>.  
  
5. click OK, logout and login as one of those users. When you logout again, you should see that the profile has been synced onto the samba server.
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
 +
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
  
= Adding organization unit (OU) into samba 4 domain =
 
  
Organizational Unit (OU), is a powerful feature in active
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
directory. This is a type of container which allows you to drag & drop
 
users and/or computers into it.
 
  
We can link several kind of group policy to an OU, and the settings
 
will deploy to all users/computers under the OU. With a single domain
 
we can have as many OU and sub OU as you like. So the result is that
 
it can greatly reduce administrative overhead because you are able to
 
manage everything via an OU. The implementation of group policy will
 
be discussed in the next chapter.
 
  
Before we create an OU, we must know what an OU looks like. By default
+
{{Imbox
we can see a sample OU 'Domain Controllers', which uses a different
+
| type = important
icon in the Windows management tools to the 'users' and 'computers'
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, you must be aware that it can be problematic and can cause strange errors.
container. We can deploy group policy to users or computers container.
+
}}
  
# To create an OU, as the domain administrator, use start -> run -> dsa.msc
+
{{Imbox
# right click on your domain.
+
| type = important
# choose new -> organizational unit
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
# type OU Demo'
+
}}
# Then you will see an new OU appear, with the name 'OU Demo'.
 
# You can drag your user 'demo' into the new OU (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!)
 
# Right Click the 'OU Demo', you can create a sub OU with New->Organizational.
 
  
Normally we create OU based the departmental setup of your
+
{{Imbox
organization. Be careful not to confuse groups and OUs, groups are
+
| type = important
used to control permissions, OU are used for deployment settings to
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
all users/computers within the OU.
+
}}
  
= Implementing Group Policies (GPO) in a Samba4 domain =
 
  
Samba4 Active Directory has support for group policies, and can create
 
the group policy on the fly. The basic idea of group policies is:-
 
  
# Group Policies have 2 kind of settings, computers and users.
 
# Computer settings apply to computers, user settings apply to users
 
# We link the group policy to a particular OU, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the OU.
 
# To add a group policy, right click 'OU Demo' OU->properties
 
# Choose group policy
 
# Press new, name as 'GP Demo'
 
# Press edit to edit the policy.
 
# Here will demonstrate how to block user from access the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'Administrative Templates'->'control panel'.
 
# Double click on 'Prohibit access to the Control Panel'
 
# Press enabled and then press OK. Now the all users under 'OU Demo' won't able to access to the control panel.
 
# Make sure user demo is inside the 'OU Demo' (You can drag and drop it).
 
# Logout and login as user 'demo'
 
# You'll find user demo is not able to access control panel
 
  
;Note :that user configuration will take effect once you logout and login.
 
;Computer :configuration will take effect when you restart the computer
 
  
To learn more about managing and implementing organizational units, group policy, and active directory, try a web search for Google in Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.
+
= Troubleshooting =
  
== Installing the Group Policy Management Console ==
+
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
  
You may also find the Group Policy Management console useful. You can
 
download it from:
 
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=0A6D4C24-8CBD-4B35-9272-DD3CBFC81887&displaylang=en
 
  
This is primarily useful for when you have larger installs and
 
are managing many machines. You may need to download the .NET
 
framework first.
 
  
= Joining a Windows domain controller as an additional DC in a domain =
 
  
Once you have a Samba domain controller setup, you can choose to join
 
additional domain controllers to the domain, whether they be
 
additional Samba domain controllers, or additional Windows domain
 
controllers.
 
  
If you wish to join an additional Samba domain controller to a domain,
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
then please see the [[Samba4/HOWTO/Join a domain as a DC|Joining a domain as a DC]] page. The instructions
 
on that page are the same for joining Samba to a Windows domain as
 
they are for joining Samba to an existing Samba domain.
 
  
If you wish to join a new Windows domain controller to a Samba domain,
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
then you should use the 'dcpromo' tool on the Windows machine. Please
 
see the normal instructions for installing dcpromo on Windows, with
 
the exception that you should not tick the 'DNS server' option box
 
when it is offered. Right now you should either use Windows for DNS,
 
or use Samba and bind9 for DNS. Mixing the two can work, but it is an
 
advanced topic that is beyond the scope of this howto.
 
  
= Migrating an Existing Samba3 Domain to Samba4 =
 
  
It is very likely that you already have a running Samba3 domain on your network.  The question is, how do you migrate that domain and all of its users and machines over to a new Samba4 based domain, without needing to move every user profile and machine to the new domain?  The answer is the [[Samba4/samba3upgrade/HOWTO|samba-tool samba3upgrade]] function.
 
  
= Report your success/failure! =
 
  
Samba4 as a replicating domain controller is still developing rapidly,
 
and we like to hear from users about their successes and
 
failures. While Samba4 is still in alpha release we would encourage
 
you to report both your successes and failures to the samba-technical
 
mailing list on http://lists.samba.org
 
  
Please be aware that Samba4 is not complete, so you should deploy it
+
----
carefully until it is ready for a non-alpha release.
+
[[Category:Domain Control]]
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]

Latest revision as of 12:50, 9 September 2020

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the search and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

Before Samba 4.11.0:

$ smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

From Samba 4.11.0:

smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful

    Sharename       Type      Comment
    ---------       ----      -------
    sysvol          Disk      
    netlogon        Disk      
    IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available


To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd or chrony service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.

You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set vfs objects = recycle in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects dfs_samba4 and acl_xattr. You must set vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle.

To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.