Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

m (Step 8 Configure DNS)
m (/* added warning)
 
(479 intermediate revisions by 43 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
= Samba4 HOWTO =
+
= Introduction =
  
This document explains how to setup a simple Samba4
+
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
server. This is aimed at people who are already familiar with Samba3
 
and wish to participate in Samba4 development or test the alpha
 
releases of Samba4. This is not aimed at general production use of
 
Samba4, although some brave sites are running Samba4 in production
 
based on these instructions.
 
  
== Video demonstrations of this HOWTO ==
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].
  
A set of [[samba4/videos|demonstration videos]] is available that
+
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
may provide a useful overview of this contents of this HOWTO
+
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
== A note on alpha versions ==
+
= Preparing the Installation =
  
Samba4 is developing very rapidly. This HOWTO is frequently updated to reflect the latest changes in the Samba git repository.
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
 +
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  
== Step 1: Download Samba4 ==
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
 +
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
If you have downloaded the Samba4 code via a tarball released from the
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
samba.org website, Step 1 has already been completed for you.  For testing
 
with the version released in the tarball, you may continue on to Step 2.
 
  
Note that the references below to the top-level directory named
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
"samba-master" will instead be based on the name of the tarball
 
downloaded (e.g. "samba-4.0.0alpha13" for the tarball
 
samba-4.0.0alpha13.tar.gz).  Also note that in the "master" branch the
 
samba4 code in our current git tree is now located in the top level
 
directory.
 
  
Otherwise there are two methods for downloading the current samba version:
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
 +
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
* via git
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
* via rsync
+
127.0.0.1    localhost localhost.localdomain
 +
10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
If you don't have rsync or git then install one of them, or stick to the latest tarball release.
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
If you have a choice, we strongly recommend using the git method for
+
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
downloading Samba, as it makes getting updates easier, and also allows
 
you to integrate test patches from Samba developers more easily in
 
case of problems.
 
  
=== git ===
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
 +
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  
  $ git clone git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba-master; cd samba-master
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
  
This will create a directory called "samba-master" in the current
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
directory.
+
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
 +
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
 +
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
If you want to update the tree to the latest version run:
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  
  $ git pull
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
  
=== rsync ===
+
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
  
  $ rsync -avz samba.org::ftp/unpacked/samba_4_0_test/ samba-master
 
  
Note that the above rsync command will give you a checked out git
 
repository, but it needs some changes so that you can update it using git:
 
  
  $ cd samba-master/
 
  $ rm .git/refs/tags/*
 
  $ rm -r .git/refs/remotes/
 
  $ git config remote.origin.url git://git.samba.org/samba.git
 
  $ git config --add remote.origin.fetch +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* (this line is optional)
 
  $ git fetch
 
  
Note you can ignore this error from git fetch:
 
error: refs/heads/master does not point to a valid object!
 
  
You can update it to the latest version at some future date using:
+
= Installing Samba =
  
  $ git pull
+
{{:Installing_Samba}}
  
If you get an error like this:
 
  fatal: Unable to create '[...]/samba_master/.git/index.lock': File exists.
 
remove the lock file and try running "git pull" again.
 
  
== Step 2: Compile Samba4 ==
 
  
Recommended optional development libraries:
 
*acl and xattr development libraries (libattr1-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*blkid development libraries (libblkid-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*gnutls (libgnutls-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*readline (libreadline5-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*Python development libraries (python-dev in Debian/Ubuntu) required to compile
 
  
For Debian:
 
$ apt-get install build-essential libattr1-dev libblkid-dev libgnutls-dev libreadline5-dev python-dev autoconf python-dnspython gdb pkg-config bind9utils libpopt-dev
 
  
For Fedora:
+
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
  
$ yum install libacl-devel libblkid-devel gnutls-devel readline-devel python-devel gdb pkgconfig
+
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
  
To build, run this:
+
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
  
  $ cd samba-master
+
{{Imbox
  $ ./configure.developer
+
| type = note
  $ make
+
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
  
The above command will setup Samba4 to install in /usr/local/samba. If
 
you want Samba to install somewhere else then you should use the
 
--prefix option to configure.developer.
 
  
The reason we recommend using configure.developer rather than
+
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
configure for Samba4 alpha releases is that it will include extra
 
debug information that will help us diagnose problems in case of
 
failures. It will also allow you to run the various builtin automatic
 
tests.
 
  
After building Samba, we recommend that you run
+
# samba-tool domain provision --help
  
  $ make quicktest
 
  
That will run a short (approximately 5 minute) set of tests to
+
{{Imbox
validate your build of Samba. While we try to be careful to ensure
+
| type = note
that all builds of Samba in the git repository are usable, sometimes a
+
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to store Unix attributes in AD, such as user IDs (UID), home directories paths, group IDs (GID). Enabling the NIS extensions has no disadvantages. However, enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
bug slips through, and 'make quicktest' is a fast way of checking that
+
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
your build passes basic tests.
+
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
  
The output of 'make quicktest' should end in a "ALL OK" message. If it
 
doesn't, then please ask on the samba-technical mailing list or
 
the #samba-technical IRC channel.
 
  
== Step 3: Install Samba4 ==
 
  
Run this as a user who have permission to write to the install
+
== Parameter Explanation ==
directory (which defaults to /usr/local/samba). Use --prefix option to
 
configure.developer above to change this.
 
 
  $ make install
 
  
For the rest of this HOWTO we will assume that you have installed
+
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
Samba4 in the default location, which is /usr/local/samba.
 
  
== Step 4: Provision Samba4 ==
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Interactive Mode Setting
 +
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
  
The "provision" step sets up a basic user database, and is used when you are setting up your Samba4
+
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
server in its own domain. If you instead want to setup your Samba4 server as an additional domain controller
+
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
in an existing domain, then please see the separate page on [[Samba4 joining a domain]].
 
  
In the following examples we will assume your DNS domain name is
 
'samdom.example.com' and your short (also known as NT4) domain name is
 
'samdom'. We will assume that your Samba servers hostname is samba.
 
  
It must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory (which means you may need to run this command with sudo)
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
  $ cd samba-master
+
{{Imbox
  $ ./source4/setup/provision --realm=samdom.example.com --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=SOMEPASSWORD --server-role='domain controller'
+
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
If you get an error like this:
+
{{Imbox
tdb_open_ex: could not open file /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/DC=SAMDOM,DC=EXAMPLE,DC=COM. ldb: Permission denied
+
| type = important
then you need to rerun with sudo
+
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
 +
}}
  
Troubleshooting note:
 
you may need to rm the smb.conf file if you failed to pass valid names and provision previously failed
 
  
There are many other options you can pass to the 'provision' command, run it with the --help option to see a list of them.
 
  
== Step 5: Starting Samba4 ==
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
  
If you are planning to run Samba4 as a production server, then just run the "samba" binary as root
+
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
  
   # samba
+
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
 +
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
   DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
  
That will run Samba4 in 'standard' mode, which is suitable for
+
{{Imbox
production use. Samba4 alpha13 doesn't yet have init scripts included
+
| type = note
for each platform, but making one for your platform should not be
+
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
difficult.
+
}}
  
If you are running Samba4 as a developer you may find
 
the following more useful:
 
  
  # samba -i -M single
 
  
that means start "samba" with messages in stdout, and running a
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging "samba" with gdb
 
particularly easy. If you want to launch it under gdb, then the following
 
example could be useful:
 
  
  $ sudo gdb --args bin/samba -i -M single
+
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
 +
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
 +
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
  
Note that if you are running any Samba3 smbd or nmbd processes
+
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
they need to be stopped before starting "samba" from Samba 4.
 
  
Make sure you put the bin and sbin directories from your new install
 
in your $PATH or you may end up running the wrong version. You can see what version
 
you have by running "samba -V".
 
  
Note: in older developer versions of samba4 "samba" was still called "smbd".
 
  
== Step 6: Testing Samba4 ==
 
  
=== smbclient ===
 
  
First check you have the right version of smbclient in your $PATH
+
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
  
  $ smbclient --version
+
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
  
This should show you a version starting with "Version 4.0.XXXXX".  
+
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
  
Now try this command:
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
 +
# systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
  $ smbclient -L localhost -U%
 
  
That should show you a list of shares available on your server. For example:
 
  
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 
        ---------      ----      -------
 
        test            Disk
 
        netlogon        Disk
 
        sysvol          Disk
 
        IPC$            IPC        IPC Service (Samba 4.0.0alpha12-GIT-5e755e9)
 
        ADMIN$          Disk      DISK Service (Samba 4.0.0alpha12-GIT-5e755e9)
 
  
The 'netlogon' and 'sysvol' shares are basic shares needed for Active Directory server
+
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
operation.
 
  
To test that authentication is working, you should try to connect to the netlogon share
+
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
using the administrator password you set earlier.
 
  
  $ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -Uadministrator%PASSWORD
+
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>search</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
  
You should get a "smb>" prompt, and access to your netlogon directory.
+
search samdom.example.com
 +
nameserver 10.99.0.1
  
== Step 7 Create a share in smb.conf ==
 
  
The provisioning will create a very simple smb.conf with no shares by
 
default. For the server to be useful you will need to update it to
 
have at least one share. For example:
 
  
  [test]
 
        path = /data/test
 
        read only = no
 
  
Note that in current alpha versions of Samba4 you need to restart Samba
 
to make new shares visible. This will be fixed in a future release.
 
  
== Step 8 Configure DNS ==
+
= Create a reverse zone =
  
A working DNS setup is essential to the correct operation of
+
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
Samba4. Without the right DNS entries, kerberos won't work, which in
 
turn means that many of the basic features of Samba4 won't work.
 
  
It is worth spending some extra time to ensure your DNS setup is just
+
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
right, as debugging problems caused by mis-configured DNS can take a
+
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
lot of time later on.
+
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
  
The simplest way to get a working DNS setup for Samba4 is to start
+
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
with the DNS zone and configuration files that are created by the
 
'provision' step above. If you look in /usr/local/samba/private
 
directory, you'll find a file called 'named.conf' and another one
 
called samdom.example.com.zone in the dns subdirectory (adjusted for your real DNS domain name
 
of course!).
 
  
Assuming your have a bind9 DNS server installed, you can activate the
+
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
configuration that the provision has created by adding a line like
 
this to /etc/bind/named.conf.local:
 
  
  include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf";
 
  
After adding that line you should restart your bind server and check
 
in the system logs for any problems.
 
  
One common problem is that many modern Linux distributions activate
 
'Apparmor' or 'SELinux' by default, and these may be configured to
 
deny access to bind for your the named.conf and zone files created in
 
the provision. If your bind logs show that bind is getting a access
 
denied error accessing these files then please see your local system
 
documentation for how to enable access to these files in bind (hint:
 
for Apparmor systems such as Ubuntu, the command aa-logprof may be
 
useful).
 
  
Now you need to test that DNS is working correctly. Check that your
 
/etc/resolv.conf is pointing correctly at your local DNS server, then
 
run the following commands:
 
  
  $ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
+
= Configuring Kerberos =
  _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 samba.samdom.example.com.
 
  
  $ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
+
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
  _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 samba.samdom.example.com.
 
  
  $ host -t A samba.samdom.example.com.
+
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
  samba.samdom.example.com has address 10.0.0.1
 
  
Check that you get answers similar to the ones above (adjusted for
+
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
your DNS domain name and hostname). If you get any errors then
 
carefully check your system logs to find and fix the problem.
 
  
*Note: One of the problems I've had on Debian system is that the zone autogeneration always detects, and uses, 127.0.1.1 as the domain controller's IP address.  That works fine until you 1) Don't have a 127.0.1.1 interface on the machine or 2) Go to join your first client to the domain.  In /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf you might need to change 127.0.1.1 to reflect the actual IP address of the server you're setting up.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
 +
}}
  
== Step 9: Testing kerberos ==
+
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
Once DNS is working, you should test that kerberos server builtin to
 
Samba4 is working correctly.
 
  
Before testing, first configure the krb.conf file (/etc/krb.conf on RHEL like systems), replace the existing one with the sample from /usr/local/samba/share/setup/krb5.conf.
 
Edit the file and replace ${REALM} with you domain name.
 
  
The easiest test is to use the kinit command like this:
 
  
  $ kinit administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
  Password:
 
  
''Note:''<br>
 
: You have to give your 'domain realm SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM' in <b>uppercase letters</b> to kinit.
 
  
The kinit should completely successfully. After it completes you can
+
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
examine the received ticket like this:
 
  
  $ klist -e
+
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_1000
 
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
 
 
  Valid starting    Expires            Service principal
 
  02/10/10 19:39:48  02/11/10 19:39:46  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
        Etype (skey, tkt): ArcFour with HMAC/md5, ArcFour with HMAC/md5
 
  
If you find you don't have kinit or klist, you may need to install them. On debian based
+
# samba
systems (such as Ubuntu) the packages are called krb5-config and krb5-user.
 
  
You can also test kerberos form a remote client, just make sure you have configure the
+
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
krb5.conf and the resolve.conf to point to the domain controller IP address.
+
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
 +
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
  
''Note:''<br>
 
: If you are using a client behind NAT then you have to add the following to the krb5.conf on the domain controller server:
 
  
  [kdc]
 
      check-ticket-addresses = false
 
  
== Step 10 Configure kerberos DNS dynamic updates ==
+
== Verifying the File Server ==
  
If you have a current version of bind9 (9.7.2 or later), then the current Samba4 git tree will automatically setup
+
To list all shares provided by the DC:
and configure a file called /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update, which you can include in your master named.conf to allow Samba/Kerberos DNS updates to automatically take place.  Be advised that if you include this file in Bind versions that don't support it, Bind will fail to start.
 
  
You additionally need to set two environment variables for bind9:
+
$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
        ---------      ----      -------
 +
        netlogon        Disk     
 +
        sysvol          Disk     
 +
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Server              Comment
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 +
        Workgroup            Master
 +
        ---------            -------
  
  KEYTAB_FILE="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
+
{{Imbox
  KRB5_KTNAME="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
+
| type = note
  export KEYTAB_FILE
+
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
  export KRB5_KTNAME
+
}}
  
These should be put in your settings file for bind9. On Debian based
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
systems this is in /etc/default/bind9.
 
On RedHat derived systems it is
 
in /etc/sysconfig/named. Strictly speaking you only either need
 
KEYTAB_FILE or KRB5_KTNAME, but which you need depends on your distro,
 
so it's easier to just set both.
 
  
The dns.keytab must be readable by the bind server user this could be accomplished by executing:
+
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
  $ chown named.named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
+
  Enter Administrator's password:  
 
+
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
Then in your /etc/bind/named.conf.options you need this:
+
   .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 
+
   ..                                 D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
    tkey-gssapi-credential "DNS/samdom.example.com";
+
    tkey-domain "SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM";
+
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
 
 
The last part of the credential in the first line must match the domain
 
you've setup. This used to be the hostname of the machine running the DNS
 
server, but at least in alpha12 and later you should use the domain.
 
 
 
The way the automatic DNS update in Samba works is that the provision
 
will create a file /usr/local/samba/private/dns_update_list, which
 
contains a list of DNS entries that Samba will try to dynamically
 
update at startup and every 10 minutes thereafter. Updates will only
 
happen if the DNS entries do not already exist.
 
 
 
If you want to debug this process, then please run this as root:
 
 
 
  /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba_dnsupdate --verbose
 
 
 
that will give you more information on the updates that Samba is doing
 
at runtime, and show you any errors that are generated.
 
 
 
If you are joining Samba4 to an existing Windows DNS domain, or you
 
are using a Windows DNS server instead of bind9, then you need
 
bind version 9.7.2rc1 (or higher) for the nsupdate command to correctly work
 
with recent versions of Windows.  If you don't have bind 9.7.2rc1 or better,
 
recent Windows clients (such as Windows7 and Win2K8) won't be able to
 
do dynamic DNS updates to your bind9 server, and bind9 won't be able
 
to do dynamic DNS updates against a Windows DNS server.
 
 
 
Until your distribution's Bind package is updated,
 
you can get an appropriate version like this (Applies for current Debian/Ubuntu-based systems).
 
 
 
$ sudo apt-get build-dep bind9
 
$ sudo apt-get install ccache
 
$ wget ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind9/9.7.2-P3/bind-9.7.2-P3.tar.gz
 
$ tar -xvf bind-9.7.2-P3.tar.gz
 
$ cd bind-9.7.2-P3
 
 
 
For some installations, you may want to change your prefix to /usr/local and keep the rest of the options. Alternatively, you can just build and install.
 
 
 
  $ ./configure
 
$ make
 
$ sudo make install
 
 
 
Now you have to ensure that bind can read the dns.keytab file, the
 
named.conf file and the zone file. It also needs to be able to write
 
the zone file. The Samba provision tries to setup the permissions
 
correctly for these files, but you may find you need to make changes
 
in your Apparmor or SELinux configuration if you are running either of
 
those. If you are using Apparmor then the aa-logprof command may help
 
you add any missing permissions you need to add after you start Samba
 
and bind9 for the first time after configuring them.
 
 
 
You should also carefully check the permissions on the private/dns directory to ensure it is writable by bind.
 
 
 
On some systems you may also find that you need to symlink the dns.keytab file as
 
/etc/krb5.keytab, as bind may not honor the environment variables for the location
 
of this file.
 
 
 
== NOTE about filesystem support ==
 
 
 
To use the advanced features of Samba4 you need a filesystem that
 
supports both the "user" and "system" xattr namespaces.
 
 
 
If you run Linux with a 2.6 kernel and ext3 this means you need to
 
include the option "user_xattr" in your /etc/fstab. For example:
 
 
 
/dev/hda3              /home                  ext3    user_xattr    1 1
 
 
 
You also need to compile your kernel with the XATTR and SECURITY
 
options for your filesystem. For ext3 that means you need:
 
 
 
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_XATTR=y
 
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_SECURITY=y
 
 
 
If you are running a Linux 2.6 kernel with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC
 
defined you can check this with the following command:
 
 
 
  $ zgrep CONFIG_EXT3_FS /proc/config.gz
 
 
 
If you don't have a filesystem with xattr support, then you can
 
simulate it by using the option:
 
 
 
  posix:eadb = /usr/local/samba/eadb.tdb
 
 
 
that will place all extra file attributes (NT ACLs, DOS EAs, streams
 
etc), in that tdb. It is not efficient, and doesn't scale well, but at
 
least it gives you a choice when you don't have a modern filesystem.
 
 
 
=== Testing your filesystem ===
 
 
 
To test your filesystem support, install the 'attr' package and run
 
the following 4 commands as root:
 
 
 
   # touch test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n user.test -v test test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n security.test -v test2 test.txt
 
  # getfattr -d test.txt
 
  # getfattr -n security.test -d test.txt
 
 
 
You should see output like this:
 
 
 
  # file: test.txt
 
   user.test="test"
 
 
 
  # file: test.txt
 
  security.test="test2"
 
 
 
If you get any "Operation not supported" errors then it means your
 
kernel is not configured correctly, or your filesystem is not mounted
 
with the right options.
 
 
 
If you get any "Operation not permitted" errors then it probably means
 
you didn't try the test as root.
 
 
 
If you are using the posix:eadb option then you don't need to test your filesystem in this manner.
 
 
 
== Profiling with google-perftools ==
 
 
 
LDFLAGS="-ltcmalloc -lprofiler" ./configure --enable-developer .....
 
 
 
This also works for CFLAGS
 
 
 
= Configure a Windows Client to join a Samba 4 Active Directory =
 
 
 
Active Directory is a powerful administration service which enables an administrator to centrally manage a network of Windows 2000, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2003, and Windows Vista Business Edition effectively. To test the real Samba 4 capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Home doesn't include Active Directory functionality and won't work).
 
 
 
To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory.
 
It involves:
 
 
 
# Configuring DNS Setting
 
# Configuring date/time and time zone
 
# Joining the domain
 
 
 
== Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows ==
 
 
 
Before we configure the DNS setting, verify that you are able to ping the Server's IP Address. If you are not able to ping the server, double check your IP address, firewall, routing, etc.
 
 
 
Once you have verified network connectivity between the Samba server and client,
 
 
 
# Right Click My Network Places -> Properties
 
# Double click local area network->Properties
 
# Double click tcp/ip
 
# Use static dns server, add the Samba 4 server's ip address inside the primary dns server column. [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dnsclient.jpg]]
 
# Press ok, ok, ok again until finished.
 
# Open a command prompt, type 'ping servername.your.realm' (change to suit your custom realm per your provision)
 
  
If you get replies, then it means your Windows XP settings are correct (for DNS) and Samba4 Server's DNS services is working as well.
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
== Step 2: Configure date/time and time zone ==
 
  
Active Directory uses Kerberos as the backend for authentication. Kerberos requires that the system clock on the client and server be synchronized to within a few seconds of each other.  If they are not synchronized, authentication will fail for apparently no reason.
 
  
# Change the timezone in Windows XP Pro so that server and client using same time zone. In my computer, I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur (I come from Malaysia).[[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/timezone.jpg]]
+
== Verifying DNS ==
# Change the date/time so the client have same HH:MM with the server [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/time.jpg]]
 
  
== Step 3: Joining the Windows client into domain ==
+
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
  
Now your Windows is ready to join the Active Directory (AD) domain,
+
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
  
As administrator:-
+
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
# Right Click my Computer-> Properties
+
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
# Choose Computer Name, click change..
 
# Click option 'Domain', insert YOUR.REALM (if you failed, try YOURDOM)([[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/joindomain.jpg]]
 
# When it request username/password, type '''administrator''' as username, '''SOMEPASSWORD''' as password (per your earlier provision).
 
# It will tell you the Windows XP has successfully join into Active Directory Domain, and you need to restart.
 
# After restart, you should get the normal domain logon dialog
 
# Choose domain YOURDOM, insert username '''administrator''' as username, '''SOMEPASSWORD''' as password (again, per your earlier provision)
 
# If you login successfully, then you able to enjoy samba 4 active directory services at next section.
 
  
= Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows XP Pro =
+
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
We need install windows 2003 adminpak into windows XP in order to use
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
GUI tools to manage the domain.  Before begin, make sure the domain
 
administrator have administrative right to control your computer.(To
 
give any user administrative right, in Windows XP Pro, right click my
 
computer, press manage-> choose groups-> double click administrators
 
and add members from domain into the member list. During you add
 
member from active directory as member, it will prompt you to enter
 
active directory username/password).
 
  
== Step 1: Installing Windows Remote Administration Tools onto Windows ==
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
= Windows7 =
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
Download the  Windows Remote Administration Tools from
 
  http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=7D2F6AD7-656B-4313-A005-4E344E43997D&displaylang=en
 
  
and follow the "Install RSAT" instructions
 
  
= Vista =
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  
Download the Windows Remote Administration Tools from
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
  http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=9FF6E897-23CE-4A36-B7FC-D52065DE9960&displaylang=en
 
  
and follow the "Install RSAT" instruction described at
+
$ kinit administrator
  http://support.microsoft.com/kb/941314
+
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  
= Windows XP Pro =
+
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The Kerberos realm is automatically appended, if you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command.<br />Set Kerberos realms always in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
# In Windows XP, download adminpak and supporttools from
+
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
  http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=86b71a4f-4122-44af-be79-3f101e533d95
 
  http://download.microsoft.com/download/3/e/4/3e438f5e-24ef-4637-abd1-981341d349c7/WindowsServer2003-KB892777-SupportTools-x86-ENU.exe
 
  
If you installed an older version of the adminpak, you'll notice the dial-in tab is missing from property pages. Just follow the link above to get SP2 which does not have this issue.
+
$ klist
 +
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
 +
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
   
 
   
# Run through the installation.
+
Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
# Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfullyYou can also find this at Start>Programs>Administrative Tools, which should have a lot more items now.
+
01.11.2016 08:45:00 12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
# Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support tools were installed correctly; if yes, then your XP workstation is ready to manage the Samba 4 Active Directory.
+
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
 
 
== Step 2: Viewing samba 4 active directory content ==
 
  
# Login as domain 'testing1.org' administrator, press start->run.
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
# type dsa.msc
 
**[[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/run.jpg ]]
 
# Expand the testing1.org tree to see existing object in domain. [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc.jpg]]
 
  
= Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From Windows XP Pro =
 
One of Samba4's goals is to integrate with (and replace) Active Directory as a system.  At this point, if everything has worked correctly you should have an "Administrative Tools" menu under Programs.  If, under Administrative Tools you have "Active Directory Users and Computers", that is a very good sign.  Most times, if there is a configuration or bug in Samba4, the AD Users & Computers (among other interfaces) won't show up as an option.  You can run it by hand (Start->Run->dsa.msc) but it's unlikely to work correctly.
 
  
  
== Step 1: Adding user into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
Unlike Samba3, Samba4 does not require a local unix user for each Samba user that is created.
 
  
To create a Samba user, use the command
 
 
samba-tool newuser USERNAME
 
 
To inspect the allocated user ID and SID, use wbinfo
 
 
$ bin/wbinfo --name-to-sid USERNAME
 
S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005 SID_USER (1)
 
 
$ bin/wbinfo --sid-to-uid S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
3000011
 
  
If you want to change this mapping, then use ldbedit on the idmap.idb,
+
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
like this:
 
  
$ bin/ldbedit -e emacs -H /usr/local/samba/private/idmap.ldb objectsid=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
+
Kerberos requires a synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
  
You will find records that look like this:
 
  
# record 1
 
dn: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
cn: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
objectClass: sidMap
 
objectSid: S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
type: ID_TYPE_BOTH
 
xidNumber: 3000011
 
distinguishedName: CN=S-1-5-21-4036476082-4153129556-3089177936-1005
 
  
If you change the xidNumber attribute and save your editor then exit,
 
then Samba will update the mapping to between the SID and the user
 
ID. Updating group mappings works in the same way.
 
  
You can also manage users using the normal Windows AD user management
 
tools.
 
  
= Setting Up Roaming Profiles (Windows 7) =
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
  
1. You will need to create a share for the profiles, typically named '''profiles'''. Edit the ''/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf'' to include:
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
  
  [profiles]
+
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
        path = /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
+
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
        read only = no
+
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
2. Create the directory above using:
 
  
  $ sudo mkdir /usr/local/samba/var/profiles
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
  
3. On windows start the ''Active Directory Users and Computers'', select all the users, right click and hit properties
+
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.
  
4. Under the profile tab, in the ''Profile path'' type the path to your share along with %USERNAME% as follows:
+
You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set <code>vfs objects = recycle</code> in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects <code>dfs_samba4</code> and <code>acl_xattr</code>. You must set <code>vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle</code>.
  
  \\sambaserver.samdom.example.com\profiles\%USERNAME%
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
 +
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
  
5. click OK, logout and login as one of those users. When you logout again, you should see that the profile has been synced onto the samba server.
 
  
= Adding organization unit (OU) into samba 4 domain =
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
  
Organizational Unit (OU), is a powerful feature in active
 
directory. This is a type of container which allows you to drag & drop
 
users and/or computers into it.
 
  
We can link several kind of group policy to an OU, and the settings
+
{{Imbox
will deploy to all users/computers under the OU. With a single domain
+
| type = important
we can have as many OU and sub OU as you like. So the result is that
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, you must be aware that it can be problematic and can cause strange errors.
it can greatly reduce administrative overhead because you are able to
+
}}
manage everything via an OU. The implementation of group policy will
 
be discussed in the next chapter.
 
  
Before we create an OU, we must know what an OU looks like. By default
+
{{Imbox
we can see a sample OU 'Domain Controllers', which uses a different
+
| type = important
icon in the Windows management tools to the 'users' and 'computers'
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
container. We can deploy group policy to users or computers container.
+
}}
  
# To create an OU, as the domain administrator, use start -> run -> dsa.msc
+
{{Imbox
# right click on your domain.
+
| type = important
# choose new -> organizational unit
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
# type OU Demo'
+
}}
# Then you will see an new OU appear, with the name 'OU Demo'.
 
# You can drag your user 'demo' into the new OU (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!)
 
# Right Click the 'OU Demo', you can create a sub OU with New->Organizational.
 
  
Normally we create OU based the departmental setup of your
 
organization. Be careful not to confuse groups and OUs, groups are
 
used to control permissions, OU are used for deployment settings to
 
all users/computers within the OU.
 
  
= Implementing Group Policies (GPO) in a Samba4 domain =
 
  
Samba4 Active Directory has support for group policies, and can create
 
the group policy on the fly. The basic idea of group policies is:-
 
  
# Group Policies have 2 kind of settings, computers and users.
 
# Computer settings apply to computers, user settings apply to users
 
# We link the group policy to a particular OU, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the OU.
 
  
# To add a group policy, right click 'OU Demo' OU->properties
+
= Troubleshooting =
# Choose group policy
 
# Press new, name as 'GP Demo'
 
# Press edit to edit the policy.
 
# Here will demonstrate how to block user from access the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'Administrative Templates'->'control panel'.
 
# Double click on 'Prohibit access to the Control Panel'
 
# Press enabled and then press OK. Now the all users under 'OU Demo' won't able to access to the control panel.
 
# Make sure user demo is inside the 'OU Demo' (You can drag and drop it).
 
# Logout and login as user 'demo'
 
# You'll find user demo is not able to access control panel
 
  
  * Note that user configuration will take effect once you logout and login.
+
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
  * Computer configuration will take effect when you restart the computer
 
  
To learn more about managing and implementing organizational units, group policy, and active directory, try a web search for Google in Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.
 
  
== Installing the Group Policy Management Console ==
 
  
You may also find the Group Policy Management console useful. You can
 
download it from:
 
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=0A6D4C24-8CBD-4B35-9272-DD3CBFC81887&displaylang=en
 
  
This is primarily useful for when you have larger installs and
 
are managing many machines. You may need to download the .NET
 
framework first.
 
  
= Joining a Windows domain controller as an additional DC in a domain =
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
  
Once you have a Samba domain controller setup, you can choose to join
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
additional domain controllers to the domain, whether they be
 
additional Samba domain controllers, or additional Windows domain
 
controllers.
 
  
If you wish to join an additional Samba domain controller to a domain,
 
then please see the [[Samba4/HOWTO/Join a domain as a DC|Joining a domain as a DC]] page. The instructions
 
on that page are the same for joining Samba to a Windows domain as
 
they are for joining Samba to an existing Samba domain.
 
  
If you wish to join a new Windows domain controller to a Samba domin,
 
then you should use the 'dcpromo' tool on the Windows machine. Please
 
see the normal instructions for installing dcpromo on Windows, with
 
the exception that you should not tick the 'DNS server' option box
 
when it is offered. Right now you should either use Windows for DNS,
 
or use Samba and bind9 for DNS. Mixing the two can work, but it is an
 
advanced topic that is beyond the scope of this howto.
 
  
== Report your success/failure! ==
 
  
Samba4 as a replicating domain controller is still developing rapidly,
 
and we like to hear from users about their successes and
 
failures. While Samba4 is still in alpha release we would encourage
 
you to report both your successes and failures to the samba-technical
 
mailing list on http://lists.samba.org
 
  
Please be aware that Samba4 is not complete, so you should deploy it
+
----
carefully until it is ready for a non-alpha release.
+
[[Category:Domain Control]]
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]

Latest revision as of 08:08, 9 July 2020

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost localhost.localdomain
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the search and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires a synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.

You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set vfs objects = recycle in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects dfs_samba4 and acl_xattr. You must set vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle.

To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.