Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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= Samba4 HOWTO =
+
= Introduction =
tridge@samba.org, December 2004
 
  
asn@redhat.com, December 2009
+
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
  
This is a very basic document on how to setup a simple Samba4
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].  
server. This is aimed at developers who are already familiar with
 
Samba3 and wish to participate in Samba4 development. This is not
 
aimed at production use of Samba4.
 
  
== Step 1: Download Samba4 ==
+
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
 +
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
If you have downloaded the Samba4 code via a tarball released from the
+
= Preparing the Installation =
samba.org website, Step 1 has already been completed for you.  For testing
 
with the version released in the tarball, you may continue on to Step 2.
 
  
Note that the references below to the top-level directory named "samba-master" will
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
instead be based on the name of the tarball downloaded (e.g.
+
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
"samba-4.0.0alpha3" for the tarball samba-4.0.0alpha3.tar.gz).
 
Also note that in the "master" branch the samba4 code is located in
 
in the "source4/" subdirectory (it was in "source/" subdirectory in the
 
"v4-0-test" branch).
 
  
There are 2 methods of doing this:
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
 +
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
* via rsync
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
* via git
 
  
Both methods will create a directory called "samba-master" in the current
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
directory. If you don't have rsync or git then install one of them.  
 
  
=== rsync ===
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
 +
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
  $ rsync -avz samba.org::ftp/unpacked/samba_4_0_test/ samba-master
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
 +
127.0.0.1    localhost
 +
10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
Note that the above rsync command will give you a checked out git
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
repository, but it's is missing all git objects. To turn it into
+
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
a working git repository you need to do the following steps:
 
  
  $ cd samba-master/
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
  $ rm .git/objects/info/alternates
+
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  $ rm .git/refs/tags/*
 
  $ rm -r .git/refs/remotes/
 
  $ git config remote.origin.url git://git.samba.org/samba.git
 
  $ git config --add remote.origin.fetch +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* (this line is optional)
 
  $ git fetch
 
  
Note you can ignore this error from git fetch:
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
error: refs/heads/master does not point to a valid object!
 
  
Also note that the git fetch will download the complete git history
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
(about 160 MB with all the tags and about 125 MB without old tags).
+
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
 +
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
 +
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
You can update it to the latest version at some future date using:
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  
  $ git pull
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
  
=== git ===
+
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
  
  $ git clone git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba-master; cd samba-master
 
  
If you want to update the tree to the latest version run:
 
  
  $ git pull
 
  
== Step 2: Compile Samba4 ==
 
  
Recommended optional development libraries:
+
= Installing Samba =
*acl and xattr development libraries (libattr1-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*blkid development libraries (libblkid-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*gnutls (libgnutls-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*readline (libreadline5-dev package in Debian/Ubuntu)
 
*Python development libraries (python-dev in Debian/Ubuntu) required to compile
 
  
For Fedora:
+
{{:Installing_Samba}}
  
$ yum install libacl-devel libblkid-devel gnutls-devel readline-devel python-devel
 
  
Since only released versions of Samba contain a pre-generated configure script,
 
you will have to generate it by hand if you downloaded the source with rsync or git:
 
  
$ cd samba-master/source4
 
$ ./autogen.sh
 
  
Run this:
 
  
  $ cd samba-master/source4
+
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
  $ ./configure
 
  $ make
 
  
== Step 3: Install Samba4 ==
+
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
  
Run this as a user who have permission to write to the install
+
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
directory (defaults to /usr/local/samba). Use --prefix option to
+
 
configure above to change this.
+
{{Imbox
+
| type = note
  $ make install
+
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool domain provision --help
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. There are no disadvantages to enabling the NIS extensions, but enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
 +
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Parameter Explanation ==
 +
 
 +
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Interactive Mode Setting
 +
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
 +
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
 +
 
 +
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
 +
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
  DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
  
 +
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
 +
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
 +
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
  
== Step 4: Provision Samba4 ==
+
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
  
The "provision" step sets up a basic user database.
 
Must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.
 
  
  $ cd samba-master/source4
 
  $ ./setup/provision --realm=YOUR.REALM --domain=YOURDOM --adminpass=SOMEPASSWORD --server-role='domain controller'
 
  
'YOURDOM' is the NT4 style domain name. 'YOUR.REALM' is your kerberos
 
realm, which is typically your DNS domain name.
 
  
Troubleshooting note:
 
you may need to rm the smb.conf file if you failed to pass valid names and provision before retrying
 
  
== Step 5: Starting Samba4 ==
+
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
  
The simplest is to just run "samba", but as a developer you may find
+
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
the following more useful:
 
  
  $ samba -i -M single
+
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
  
that means start "samba" with messages in stdout, and running a
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging "samba" with gdb
+
# systemctl start named
particularly easy.
+
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
Note that now it is no longer necessary to have an instance of nmbd
 
from Samba 3 running.  If you are running any smbd or nmbd processes
 
they need to be stopped before starting "samba" from Samba 4.
 
  
Make sure you put the bin and sbin directories from your new install
 
in your $PATH. Make sure you run the right version!
 
  
Note: in older delevoper versions of samba4 "samba" was still called "smbd".
 
  
== Step 6: Testing Samba4 ==
+
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
  
Try this command:
+
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
  
  $ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator%SOMEPASSWORD
+
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>search</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
  
 +
search samdom.example.com
 +
nameserver 10.99.0.1
  
== Step 7 (Optional): Create a share in smb.conf ==
 
  
The provisioning will create a very simple smb.conf with no shares by
 
default. You will need to update it to have at least one share. For
 
example:
 
  
  [test]
 
        path = /data/test
 
        read only = no
 
  
  
 +
= Create a reverse zone =
  
== Step 8 (Optional): Configure Server-side DNS ==
+
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
  
At this point, you can configure DNS on the Samba server to support dynamic update and to work correctly with Windows clients. First, install Bind9 (the 'bind9' package in Debian).   
+
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Once that's installed, look in /usr/local/samba/private for three files. You'll see "YOUR.REALM.zone", "named.conf" and "named.txt"Copy *just* your.realm.zone to /etc/bind/ (or wherever you want to store zone files) and then take a look at named.conf in the local directory. The following directions are Debian-centric but you should be able to adapt them easily:
+
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 +
  Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
  
# Copy and paste named.conf (the zone listing for your realm) into the real /etc/bind/named.conf.
+
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
# You'll notice a lot of comments.  Read those.  If you have a version of bind that works (9.5.0 from Debian Unstable works) then you can also uncomment the "grant ..." line.
 
# Follow the instructions in "named.txt":
 
# Search for "tkey-gssapi" and add those two lines to /etc/bind/named.conf.options
 
# Add the "export KRB5_KTNAME ..." line to /etc/default/bind
 
# Run the two commands listed at the bottom of the file
 
# Extra Optionally:  You can add reverse DNS entries and updating as per the example in the file.  You'll also have to create the reverse zone in the bind config dir.
 
# Copy the krb5.conf file from /usr/local/samba/private/ to /etc
 
# Bind has to be able to update the journal files.  The easiest, laziest, and worst way to do this is by 'chown -R bind.bind /etc/bind"; this is totally insecure, but since you're just testing that's okay...for the moment.  The correct way to do it is to create the journal files by hand and change their ownership to bind.bind, OR put the journals in a seperate directory (like /var/bind/dynamic or something) and change it's ownership.
 
# For PTR registration to work correctly, the name server entry in the  [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_DNS_record_types#SOA SOA]  record (see [http://www.zytrax.com/books/dns/ch8/soa.html here] for the synthax) for the reverse zone has to be the name of valid DNS server in your domain otherwise Windows is unable to make the PTR registration
 
# Restart bind
 
# `tail -n 30 /var/log/daemon.log` and check for any errors regarding the zone files.  You may have to do some tweaking.
 
Note: If you decide to test bind via something like `named -d 9999 -f -g`, remember to run the "EXPORT KRB5_KTNAME..." line beforehand, or it will fail with a GSS/"File Not Found" error.
 
  
Assuming it's all up and working, test the DNS resolution. You should be able to do
+
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
`dig _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.your.realm SRV @localhost` And get something back.  For instance, on mine:
 
  
samba4-alpha5:~# dig _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local SRV @localhost
 
  
<pre>; <<>> DiG 9.5.0 <<>> _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local SRV @localhost
 
;; global options:  printcmd
 
;; Got answer:
 
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 1550
 
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 1
 
  
;; QUESTION SECTION:
 
;_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local. IN  SRV
 
  
;; ANSWER SECTION:
 
_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba5.local. 604800 IN SRV 0 100 389 samba4-alpha5.samba5.local.
 
</pre>
 
  
DNS should be set to go.  Read on for joining workstations to the domain.
+
= Configuring Kerberos =
  
Note2: Windows clients must be configured to send signed DNS update as it is not always the default, to have PTR record update you need to activate the registration of this kind of record.
+
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
  
Both can be done it either through GPO or [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307882 local policy editor] using this [http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=92759d4b-7112-4b6c-ad4a-bbf3802a5c9b&displaylang=en policy files], see this [http://support.microsoft.com/kb/294785 kb article] for more information.
+
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
  
== NOTE about filesystem support ==
+
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
  
To use the advanced features of Samba4 you need a filesystem that
+
{{Imbox
supports both the "user" and "system" xattr namespaces.
+
| type = important
 +
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
 +
}}
  
If you run Linux with a 2.6 kernel and ext3 this means you need to
+
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
include the option "user_xattr" in your /etc/fstab. For example:
 
  
/dev/hda3              /home                  ext3    user_xattr    1 1
 
  
You also need to compile your kernel with the XATTR and SECURITY
 
options for your filesystem. For ext3 that means you need:
 
  
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_XATTR=y
 
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_SECURITY=y
 
  
If you are running a Linux 2.6 kernel with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC
 
defined you can check this with the following command:
 
  
  $ zgrep CONFIG_EXT3_FS /proc/config.gz
+
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
  
If you don't have a filesystem with xattr support, then you can
+
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
simulate it by using the option:
 
  
  posix:eadb = /usr/local/samba/eadb.tdb
+
# samba
  
that will place all extra file attributes (NT ACLs, DOS EAs, streams
+
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
etc), in that tdb. It is not efficient, and doesn't scale well, but at
+
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
least it gives you a choice when you don't have a modern filesystem.
+
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
  
=== Testing your filesystem ===
 
  
To test your filesystem support, install the 'attr' package and run
 
the following 4 commands as root:
 
  
  # touch test.txt
+
== Verifying the File Server ==
  # setfattr -n user.test -v test test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n security.test -v test2 test.txt
 
  # getfattr -d test.txt
 
  # getfattr -n security.test -d test.txt
 
  
You should see output like this:
+
To list all shares provided by the DC:
  
  # file: test.txt
+
Before Samba 4.11.0:
  user.test="test"
 
  
  # file: test.txt
+
$ smbclient -L localhost -N
  security.test="test2"
+
Anonymous login successful
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
        ---------      ----      -------
 +
        netlogon        Disk     
 +
        sysvol          Disk     
 +
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Server              Comment
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 +
        Workgroup            Master
 +
        ---------            -------
  
If you get any "Operation not supported" errors then it means your
+
From Samba 4.11.0:
kernel is not configured correctly, or your filesystem is not mounted
 
with the right options.
 
  
If you get any "Operation not permitted" errors then it probably means
+
smbclient -L localhost -N
you didn't try the test as root.
+
Anonymous login successful
 +
 +
    Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
    ---------      ----      -------
 +
    sysvol          Disk     
 +
    netlogon        Disk     
 +
    IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
 +
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available
  
= Configure a Windows Client to join a Samba 4 Active Directory =
 
  
Active Directory is a powerful administration service which enables an administrator to centrally manage a network of Windows 2000, Windows XP Pro, Windows 2003, and Windows Vista Business Edition effectively. To test the real Samba 4 capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Home doesn't include Active Directory functionality and won't work).
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
  
To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory.
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
It involves:
 
  
# Configuring DNS Setting
+
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
# Configuring date/time and time zone
+
Enter Administrator's password:
# Joining the domain
+
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
  .                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
  ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
 +
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
  
== Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows ==
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
Before we configure the DNS setting, verify that you are able to ping the Server's IP Address. If you are not able to ping the server, double check your IP address, firewall, routing, etc.
 
  
Once you have verified network connectivity between the Samba server and client,
 
  
# Right Click My Network Places -> Properties
+
== Verifying DNS ==
# Double click local area network->Properties
 
# Double click tcp/ip
 
# Use static dns server, add the Samba 4 server's ip address inside the primary dns server column. [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dnsclient.jpg]]
 
# Press ok, ok, ok again until finished.
 
# Open a command prompt, type 'ping servername.your.realm' (change to suit your custom realm per your provision)
 
  
If you get replies, then it means your Windows XP settings are correct (for DNS) and Samba4 Server's DNS services is working as well.
+
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
  
== Step 2: Configure date/time and time zone ==
+
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
  
Active Directory uses Kerberos as the backend for authentication. Kerberos requires that the system clock on the client and server be synchronized to within a few seconds of each otherIf they are not synchronized, authentication will fail for apparently no reason.
+
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 +
  _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
# Change the timezone in Windows XP Pro so that server and client using same time zone. In my computer, I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur (I come from Malaysia).[[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/timezone.jpg]]
+
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
# Change the date/time so the client have same HH:MM with the server [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/time.jpg]]
 
  
== Step 3: Joining the Windows client into domain ==
+
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
Now your Windows is ready to join the Active Directory (AD) domain,
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
  
As administrator:-
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
# Right Click my Computer-> Properties
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
# Choose Computer Name, click change..
 
# Click option 'Domain', insert YOUR.REALM (if you failed, try YOURDOM)([[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/joindomain.jpg]]
 
# When it request username/password, type '''administrator''' as username, '''SOMEPASSWORD''' as password (per your earlier provision).
 
# It will tell you the Windows XP has successfully join into Active Directory Domain, and you need to restart.
 
# After restart, you should get the normal domain logon dialog
 
# Choose domain YOURDOM, insert username '''administrator''' as username, '''SOMEPASSWORD''' as password (again, per your earlier provision)
 
# If you login successfully, then you able to enjoy samba 4 active directory services at next section.
 
  
= Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows XP Pro =
 
  
Due to Samba 4 SWAT is not yet ready for production, we need install windows 2003 adminpak into windows XP in order to manage the domain(It is user friendly).
 
Before begin, make sure the domain administrator have administrative right to control your computer.(To give any user administrative right, in Windows XP Pro, right click my computer, press manage-> choose groups-> doble click administrators and add members from domain into the member list. During you add member from active directory as member, it will prompt you to enter active directory username/password).
 
  
== Step 1: Installing Windows Remote Administration Tools onto Windows ==
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  
= Vista =
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
  
Downlod the Windows Remote Administration Tools from
+
  $ kinit administrator
  http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=9FF6E897-23CE-4A36-B7FC-D52065DE9960&displaylang=en
+
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  
and follow the "Install RSAT" instruction desribed at
+
: {{Imbox
  http://support.microsoft.com/kb/941314
+
| type = note
 +
| text = If you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command, the Kerberos realm is automatically appended.<br />Always enter the Kerberos realm in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
= Windows XP Pro =
+
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
  
# In Windows XP, download adminpak and supporttools from
+
$ klist
  http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=c16ae515-c8f4-47ef-a1e4-a8dcbacff8e3&displaylang=en
+
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
  http://download.microsoft.com/download/3/e/4/3e438f5e-24ef-4637-abd1-981341d349c7/WindowsServer2003-KB892777-SupportTools-x86-ENU.exe
+
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
   
 
   
# Run through the installation.
+
Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
# Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfully.  You can also find this at Start>Programs>Administrative Tools, which should have a lot more items now.
+
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
# Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support tools were installed correctly; if yes, then your XP workstation is ready to manage the Samba 4 Active Directory.
+
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
 +
 
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
 +
 
 +
Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> or <code>chrony</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
  
== Step 2: Viewing samba 4 active directory content ==
 
  
# Login as domain 'testing1.org' administrator, press start->run.
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
# type dsa.msc
 
**[[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/run.jpg ]]
 
# Expand the testing1.org tree to see existing object in domain. [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc.jpg]]
 
  
= Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From Windows XP Pro =
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
One of Samba4's goals is to integrate with (and replace) Active Directory as a system.  At this point, if everything has worked correctly you should have an "Administrative Tools" menu under Programs.  If, under Administrative Tools you have "Active Directory Users and Computers", that is a very good sign.  Most times, if there is a configuration or bug in Samba4, the AD Users & Computers (among other interfaces) won't show up as an option.  You can run it by hand (Start->Run->dsa.msc) but it's unlikely to work correctly.
 
  
 +
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
 +
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
 +
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
== Step 1: Adding user into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
Just as with Samba 3, version 4 needs an existing Unix user to map the Samba user to. Basically this task involve 3 jobs.
 
  
# Add Unix User.  In most Linux systems, you can use the ''useradd'' command.  As root:
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
    ''useradd demo''
 
    ''passwd demo'' (Will prompt for a new password)
 
   
 
    (Debian/Ubuntu users tend to use the ''adduser'' script, which is an interactive script that handles both user addition and the password)
 
  
 +
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.
  
NOTE: As of Alpha3, SWAT is '''disabled''' and you will not be able to add users through the web interface. If you are using Alpha3 (April 2008), or possibly later, step two here will not work. Instead, use Step 2B.
+
You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set <code>vfs objects = recycle</code> in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects <code>dfs_samba4</code> and <code>acl_xattr</code>. You must set <code>vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle</code>.  
  
# Using SWAT to add samba user.
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
## Open up mozilla-firefox
+
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
## open url http://samba-4-server-ip:901
+
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
## User = administrator, password = testing1, domain = testing,->Login.
 
## click installation-> new user.
 
## type username=demo, unix name = demo, password you like twice
 
***[[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/swat-adduser.jpg]]
 
  
## Go into your Samba4 source tree ('''cd samba4/source''') and run '''./setup/newuser ''username'' '''
 
  
NOTE: As of Alpha 5, creating users correctly puts them into the AD side of things.  After performing step, check in the AD Users & Computer setup to verify if the user you created is present. If it is, try logging in as the new user on the workstation.  If it works, ignore the next step.
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
  
Modify the user from Windows XP.
 
  
## Start -> run -> dsa.msc
+
{{Imbox
## Open testing1.org tree, click container 'users'-> double click 'demo'.
+
| type = important
## Edit first name, lastname and username [[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc-general.jpg]]
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, you must be aware that it can be problematic and can cause strange errors.
## Go to account tab, fill in 'demo' in both username and logon name, choose domain (not the pre-win 2000) column.
+
}}
***[[:Image:http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc-edituser.jpg]]
 
##  set 'Password never expires' if you'd like.
 
## Apply, then try to login with new user.
 
 
 
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
If you able to login, then the user was successfully created.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
== Step 2: Adding groups into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
To manage resource more effectively, we need to use groups. Same with users we need to have a unix group and samba groups. I haven't test whether the groups is working properly, but I guess more or less this method is correct(Please feed back if you found any error).
 
  
# Creating Unix Groups
 
  
    $sudo groupadd grpdemo
 
    $sudo gedit /etc/group
 
   
 
    we can add user into group with following syntax:-
 
    grpdemo:x:1007:demo, user1, user2
 
  
# Adding group into samba 4 active directory
 
## As domain testing1.org administrator, start->run->dsa.msc.
 
## Open tree testing1.org, right click 'users' container->new->groups
 
## type group name 'grpdemo' in both column->ok (others leave default)
 
  
# Link the Unix groups to samba groups
+
= Troubleshooting =
## Start mozilla-firefox (or IE), open url : http://samba-svr-ip:901
 
## Username=administrator, password = testing1, domain = testing1
 
## Choose preview of new swat-> modules -> LDB Browser
 
## Open up sam.ldb tree, open up dc=testing1,dc=org, open cn=users
 
## Click CN= grpdemo-> press modify button
 
## At bottom most of right side, press '+' (Which is adding a new field)
 
## Put field name(left text box) = 'unixName', data(right text box) = 'grpdemo' -> ok
 
  
= Adding organization unit (ou) into samba 4 domain =
+
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
  
Organizational Unit (ou), is a most powerful feature I found in active directory. Basically this is some kind of container which allow us to drag & drop users,computers into it.
 
  
we can link several kind of group policy (You can consider it is a graphical setting) to an ou, and the setting will deploy to all users/computers under the ou. With a single domain we can have many ou and sub ou. So the result is it greatly reduce administrative afford because we able to manage everything via ou. The implementation of group policy will discuss at next chapter.
 
  
Before we create an ou, we must know how ou look likes? By default we can see a sample ou 'Domain Controllers', it looks difference with 'users' and 'computers' container right? We can deploy group policy to users or computers container.
 
  
# To create an ou, as testing1 domain administrator, start -> run -> dsa.msc
 
# right click testing1.org.
 
# choose new -? organizationalunit
 
# type 'oudemo'
 
# Then you will see an new ou appear, with the name 'oudemo'.
 
# You can drag user 'demo' into the new ou (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!)
 
# Right Click the 'oudemo', you can click sub ou with method 3.
 
  
Normaly we create ou base on total department we have, what branch we have and etc. Don't confuse between groups and ou, groups use to control the permission, ou use for deploy setting to all users/computers under it.
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
  
= Implementing Group Policy (GPO) into samba 4 domain =
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
  
Recently Samba 4 Active Directory had support group policy, and we can create the group policy on the fly. The basic ideal of group policy is:-
 
  
# Group Policy have 2 kind of settings, computers and users.
 
# Computer setting apply to computer, user setting apply to user
 
# We link the group policy to particular ou, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the ou.
 
  
# To add a group policy, right click 'oudemo' ou->properties
 
# Choose group policy
 
# Press new, name as 'gpoudemo'
 
# Press edit to edit the policy.
 
# Here will demonstrate how to block user from access the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'control paner'.
 
# Double click prohibit access to the control panel
 
# Press enable and then press ok. Now the all users under 'oudemo' won't able to access the control panel.
 
# Make sure user demo is inside the 'oudemo'(You can drag and drop it).
 
# Logout and login as user 'demo'
 
# You'll find user demo not able to access control panel
 
  
  * User configuration will effect once we logout and login.
 
  * Computer configuration will effect once restart computer
 
  
To learn more about managing and implementing organizational units, group policy, and active directory Google for Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.
+
----
 +
[[Category:Domain Control]]
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]

Latest revision as of 12:50, 9 September 2020

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the search and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

Before Samba 4.11.0:

$ smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

From Samba 4.11.0:

smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful

    Sharename       Type      Comment
    ---------       ----      -------
    sysvol          Disk      
    netlogon        Disk      
    IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available


To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd or chrony service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.

You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set vfs objects = recycle in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects dfs_samba4 and acl_xattr. You must set vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle.

To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.