Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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= Samba4 developer howto =
+
= Introduction =
tridge@samba.org, December 2004
 
  
 +
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
  
This is a very basic document on how to setup a simple Samba4
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].  
server. This is aimed at developers who are already familiar with
 
Samba3 and wish to participate in Samba4 development. This is not
 
aimed at production use of Samba4.
 
  
 +
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
 +
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
== Step 1: download Samba4 ==
+
= Preparing the Installation =
  
There are 2 methods of doing this:
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
 +
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  
* method 1:  "rsync -avz samba.org::ftp/unpacked/samba_4_0_test samba4"
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
* method 2:  "git clone git://git.samba.org/samba.git samba4; cd samba4 && git checkout -b v4-0-test origin/v4-0-test; cd .."
+
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
Both methods will create a directory called "samba4" in the current
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
directory. If you don't have rsync or git then install one of them.  
 
  
Since only released versions of Samba contain a pregenerated configure script,  
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
you will have to generate it by hand:
 
  
  $ cd samba4/source
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
$ ./autogen.sh
+
  # ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
Note that the above rsync command will give you a checked out svn
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
repository. So if you also have svn you can update it to the latest
+
127.0.0.1    localhost localhost.localdomain
version at some future date using:
+
10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
  $ cd samba4
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  $ git pull origin v4-0-test
+
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
  
== Step 2: compile Samba4 ==
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
 +
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  
Recommended optional development libraries:
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
- acl and xattr development libraries
 
- gnutls
 
- readline
 
  
Run this:
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
 +
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
 +
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
 +
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
  $ cd samba4/source
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  $ ./configure
 
  $ make proto all
 
  
If you have gcc 3.4 or newer, then substitute "pch" for "proto" to
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
greatly speed up the compile process (about 5x faster).
 
  
== Step 3: install Samba4 ==
+
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Installing Samba =
 +
 
 +
{{:Installing_Samba}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
 +
 
 +
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
 +
 
 +
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool domain provision --help
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to store Unix attributes in AD, such as user IDs (UID), home directories paths, group IDs (GID). Enabling the NIS extensions has no disadvantages. However, enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
 +
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Parameter Explanation ==
 +
 
 +
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Interactive Mode Setting
 +
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
 +
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
  
Run this as a user who have permission to write to the install
 
directory (defaults to /usr/local/samba). Use --prefix option to
 
configure above to change this.
 
 
  # make install
 
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
== Step 4: provision Samba4 ==
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
The "provision" step sets up a basic user database. Make sure your smbscript
+
{{Imbox
binary is installed in a directory listed in your PATH environment variable.
+
| type = important
It is presumed it's available just like any other commands from your shell.
+
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
Must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.
+
}}
  
  # cd source
 
  # ./setup/provision --realm=YOUR.REALM --domain=YOURDOM --adminpass=SOMEPASSWORD --server-role='domain controller'
 
  
'YOURDOM' is the NT4 style domain name. 'YOUR.REALM' is your kerberos
 
realm, which is typically your DNS domain name.
 
  
== Step 5: Create a simple smb.conf ==
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
  
The provisioning will create a very simple smb.conf with no shares by
+
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
default. You will need to update it to add at least one share. For
 
example:
 
  
   [test]
+
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
        path = /data/test
+
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
        read only = no
+
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
   DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
 +
}}
  
== Step 6: starting Samba4 ==
 
  
The simplest is to just run "smbd", but as a developer you may find
 
the following more useful:
 
  
  # smbd -i -M single
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
  
that means "start smbd without messages in stdout, and running a
+
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging smbd with gdb
+
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
particularly easy.
+
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
  
Note that now it is no longer necessary to have an instance of nmbd
+
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
from Samba 3 running. If you are running any smbd or nmbd processes
 
they need to be stopped before starting smbd from Samba 4.
 
  
Make sure you put the bin and sbin directories from your new install
 
in your $PATH. Make sure you run the right version!
 
  
  
== Step 7: testing Samba4 ==
 
  
try these commands:
 
  
    $ smbclient //localhost/test -Uadministrator%SOMEPASSWORD
+
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
or
 
    $ ./script/tests/test_posix.sh //localhost/test administrator SOMEPASSWORD
 
  
 +
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
  
== NOTE about filesystem support ==
+
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
  
To use the advanced features of Samba4 you need a filesystem that
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
supports both the "user" and "system" xattr namespaces.
+
# systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
If you run Linux with a 2.6 kernel and ext3 this means you need to
 
include the option "user_xattr" in your /etc/fstab. For example:
 
  
/dev/hda3              /home                  ext3    user_xattr    1 1
 
  
You also need to compile your kernel with the XATTR and SECURITY
 
options for your filesystem. For ext3 that means you need:
 
  
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_XATTR=y
+
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_SECURITY=y
 
  
If you are running a Linux 2.6 kernel with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC
+
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
defined you can check this with the following command:
 
  
  $ zgrep CONFIG_EXT3_FS /proc/config.gz
+
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>domain</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
  
If you don't have a filesystem with xattr support, then you can
+
search samdom.example.com
simulate it by using the option:
+
nameserver 10.99.0.1
  
  posix:eadb = /usr/local/samba/eadb.tdb
 
  
that will place all extra file attributes (NT ACLs, DOS EAs, streams
 
etc), in that tdb. It is not efficient, and doesn't scale well, but at
 
least it gives you a choice when you don't have a modern filesystem.
 
  
=== Testing your filesystem ===
 
  
To test your filesystem support, install the 'attr' package and run
 
the following 4 commands as root:
 
  
  # touch test.txt
+
= Create a reverse zone =
  # setfattr -n user.test -v test test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n security.test -v test2 test.txt
 
  # getfattr -d test.txt
 
  # getfattr -n security.test -d test.txt
 
  
You should see output like this:
+
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
  
  # file: test.txt
+
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
  user.test="test"
+
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 +
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
  
  # file: test.txt
+
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
  security.test="test2"
 
  
If you get any "Operation not supported" errors then it means your
+
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
kernel is not configured correctly, or your filesystem is not mounted
 
with the right options.
 
  
If you get any "Operation not permitted" errors then it probably means
 
you didn't try the test as root.
 
  
  
= Testing Samba4 Active Directory in Ubuntu 7.04 howto =
 
kstan79@gmail.com, 18-August-2007
 
  
**When you see this message, it mean following page still under construction and the documentation at bottom maybe not work 100%. You have been tell. **
 
== Step 1: Install required package ==
 
Ubuntu Feisty (7.04), by default not yet install required package for samba 4. To install all required package(We will remove bind8), type this command:-
 
  $sudo /etc/init.d/bind stop
 
  $sudo apt-get remove bind
 
  $sudo apt-get install autoconf bind9 libc6-dev subversion gettext
 
  
It will ask you to install additional package, simply press 'y' to accept it.
+
= Configuring Kerberos =
  
== Step 2: Download samba 4 latest source code ==
+
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
Type this command to get latest source (subversion)
 
  
  $cd /usr/src
+
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
  $sudo svn co svn://svnanon.samba.org/samba/branches/SAMBA_4_0 samba4
 
  
You will see the terminal start to download the source code, leave it until the end. When the samba4 source code is download completed, you will found a 'samba4' folder appear in /usr/src
+
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
  
== Step 3: Synchronize your samba 4 source code to the svn server ==
+
{{Imbox
Samba 4 development is quite fast, you always can see something within a week. To update the latest source code:
+
| type = important
 +
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
 +
}}
  
  $cd /usr/src/samba4
+
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
  $sudo svn update
 
  
== Step 4: To compile and install samba 4 into Ubuntu 7.04 ==
 
  
To compile and install samba 4, we force it to install at /usr/local,
 
  
  $cd /usr/src/samba4/source
 
  $sudo ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
 
  $sudo make pch all
 
  $sudo make install
 
  $sudo ./setup/provision --realm=TESTING1.ORG --domain=TESTING1 --adminpass=testing1
 
  
If you use gcc older than 3.4, use 'make proto all' rather than 'make pch all'. If there is no error, your samba 4 is install successfully.
 
  
== Step 5: Setting up DNS Server for samba 4 in Ubuntu 7.04 ==
+
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
Samba 4 work as Windows Active Directory Server, and DNS Server is critical component in active directory. During compilation and installation, the samba4 help us to create a standard DNS zone.
 
  $sudo cp /usr/local/testing1.org.zone /etc/bind
 
  $sudo gedit /etc/bind/named.conf.local
 
  
At following line into the bottom of file:
+
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
  
----
+
# samba
  
zone "testing1.org" {
+
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
        type master;
+
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
        file "/etc/bind/testing1.org.zone";
+
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
};
 
  
----
 
  
Double check the testing1.org.zone whether feed your configuration(If you use vmware which will add in 2 more network interface, you need to edit it manually)
 
Base on setting inside my computer,
 
Ip Address = 192.168.141.1,
 
hostname = mis1.testing1.org
 
Check the bold text whether it correctly configured.
 
  
  $sudo gedit /etc/bind/testing1.org.zone
+
== Verifying the File Server ==
  
 +
To list all shares provided by the DC:
  
----
+
$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
; -*- zone -*-
+
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
; generated by provision.pl
+
$ORIGIN '''testing1.org.'''
+
        Sharename      Type      Comment
$TTL 1W
+
        ---------      ----      -------
@              IN SOA  @  '''mis1.testing1.org.''' (
+
        netlogon        Disk     
                                2007071516  ; serial
+
        sysvol          Disk     
                                2D              ; refresh
+
        IPC$           IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
                                4H              ; retry
+
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
                                6W              ; expiry
+
   
                                1W )           ; minimum
+
        Server              Comment
  IN NS '''mis1'''
+
        ---------            -------
  IN A '''192.168.141.1'''
+
   
  ;
+
        Workgroup            Master
  '''mis1 IN A 192.168.141.1'''
+
        ---------           -------
  1846d80a-02c6-4bdb-8f1b-7d95d7a85024._msdcs IN CNAME mis1
 
  ;
 
; global catalog servers
 
_gc._tcp IN SRV 0 100 3268 mis1
 
_ldap._tcp.gc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
_ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.gc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
;
 
; ldap servers
 
_ldap._tcp IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
_ldap._tcp.pdc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
_ldap._tcp.b15dc010-f593-4a5b-acf2-d0b2c1d1beef.domains._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
_ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 389 mis1
 
;
 
; krb5 servers
 
_kerberos._tcp IN SRV 0 100 88 mis1
 
_kerberos._tcp.dc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 88 mis1
 
_kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs IN SRV 0 100 88 mis1
 
_kerberos._udp IN SRV 0 100 88 mis1
 
; MIT kpasswd likes to lookup this name on password change
 
_kerberos-master._tcp IN SRV 0 100 88 mis1
 
_kerberos-master._udp IN SRV 0 100 88 mis1
 
;
 
; kpasswd
 
_kpasswd._tcp IN SRV 0 100 464 mis1
 
_kpasswd._udp IN SRV 0 100 464 mis1
 
;
 
; heimdal 'find realm for host' hack
 
_kerberos IN TXT '''TESTING1.ORG'''
 
  
== Step 6: Bring up the DNS server ==
+
{{Imbox
Edit the /etc/resolv.conf, then your computer will query DNS from itself
+
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
  
  $sudo echo "nameserver 127.0.0.1" > /etc/resolv.conf
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
  $sudo echo "nameserver your-isp-dns-ipaddress" >> /etc/resolv.conf
 
  
You need to restart the DNS server in order to bing up the new zone
+
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
  $sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 restart
+
Enter Administrator's password:
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
  .                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
  ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
 +
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
  
if you able to ping the mis1.testing1.org (change mis1 to feed your setting), then it mean the dns server is ready. Please don't proceed to next step if your DSN server is not ready. Because your client PC won't able to join the domain.
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
== Step 7: Fire up samba 4 Services ==
 
Before we start up the samba 4 services, we need to check the server time zone, you must make sure server and client must use the same time zone. I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur
 
  
  $sudo tzconfig
 
  
 +
== Verifying DNS ==
  
To monitor samba 4 activity easier, I don't use daemon mode to start the samba 4 services.
+
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
  $sudo /usr/local/sbin/smbd -i -d 5
 
  
Now your samba 4 is ready, open this url at mozilla firefox to see new SWAT.
+
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
  
http://localhost:901 [http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/swat.jpg SWAT Screen Shoot]
+
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
If you see the swat, then the samba 4 server is work. Then we ready to configure client computer.
+
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
  
= Configure Windows XP Pro client to join Samba 4 Active Directory=
+
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
Active Directory is a powerful administration servers which able to centralize manage all Windows 2000, windows XP Pro, all Windows 2003, and Windows Vista Business Edition effectively. To test the real samba 4 capability, we use Windows XP Pro as testing environment (Windows XP Pro won't work with Active Directory).
+
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
To allow Samba 4 Active Directory or Microsoft Active Directory to manage a computer, we need to join the computer into the active directory.
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
It involve:-
 
1. Configure DNS Setting
 
2. Configure date/time and time zone
 
3. Joining into domain
 
  
== Step 1: Configure DNS Setting for Windows XP Pro ==
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
Before we configure the DNS setting, verified whether you able to ping the Ubuntu 7.04 Server's IP Address. If you not able to ping the server, verified your IP address, Ubuntu's Firewall and etc.
+
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
Once the network is ready between server and client,
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  1. Right Click My Network Places -> Properties
 
  2. Double click local area network->Properties
 
  3. Double click tcp/ip
 
  4. Use static dns server, add the Samba 4 server's ip address inside the primary dns server column. [http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dnsclient.jpg Configure DNS Screen Shoot]
 
  5. Press ok, ok, ok again until finish.
 
  6. Open a command prompt, type
 
'ping mis1.testing1.org' (change mis1 to suit your custom setting)
 
  
If you get correct reply, then it mean you Windows XP setting is correct and Ubuntu Server's DNS services is working well.
 
  
== Step 2: Configure date/time and time zone ==
 
Active Directory using kerberos as backend for authentication. In order to let the authentication working well the date/time difference between the server and client must less than 5 minute.
 
  
  1. Change the timezone in Windows XP Pro so that server and client using same time zone. In my computer, I use Asia/Kuala_Lumpur (I come from Malaysia).[http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/timezone.jpg Changing Time Zone Screen Shoot]
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  2. Change the date/time so the client have same HH:MM with the server [http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/time.jpg Changing Date/Time Screen Shoot]
 
  
== Step 3: Joining windows XP Pro into Domain ==
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
Now your Windows XP Pro is ready to join the active directory domain,
 
  
As administrator:-
+
$ kinit administrator
  1. Right Click my Computer-> Properties
+
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  2. Choose Computer Name, click change..
 
  3. Click option 'Domain', insert testing1.org (if you failed, try testing1)([http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/joindomain.jpg screen shoot])
 
  4. When it request username/password, type '''administrator''' as username, '''testing1''' as password(Refer Testing Samba4 Active Directory in Ubuntu 7.04 howto).
 
  5. It will tell you the Windows XP has successfully join into Active Directory Domain, and you need to restart.
 
  6. After restart, before login you can press option to choose either you want to login to testing1 domain or mis1 (localhost).
 
  7. Choose domain testing1, insert username 'administrator', password = 'testing1'
 
  8. If you login successfully, then you able to enjoy samba 4 active directory services at next section.
 
  
= Viewing Samba 4 Active Directory object from Windows XP Pro =
+
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The Kerberos realm is automatically appended, if you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command.<br />Set Kerberos realms always in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
Due to Samba 4 SWAT is not yet ready for production, we need install windows 2003 adminpak into windows XP in order to manage the domain(It is user friendly).
+
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
Before begin, make sure the domain administrator have administrative right to control your computer.(To give any user administrative right, in Windows XP Pro, right click my computer, press manage-> choose groups-> doble click administrators and add members from domain into the member list. During you add member from active directory as member, it will prompt you to enter active directory username/password).
 
  
== Step 1: Installing windows 2003 adminpak and support tools into windows XP Pro ==
+
$ klist
  1. In Windows XP, download adminpak and supporttools from
+
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
  http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=c16ae515-c8f4-47ef-a1e4-a8dcbacff8e3&displaylang=en
+
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
  http://download.microsoft.com/download/3/e/4/3e438f5e-24ef-4637-abd1-981341d349c7/WindowsServer2003-KB892777-SupportTools-x86-ENU.exe
 
 
   
 
   
  2. Install it until it tell you the program is install successfully.
+
Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
  3. Press start->run, type 'dsa.msc', if a window 'active directory users and computers' prompt up, it mean you had install adminpak it successfully.
+
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
  4 Go to c:\Program Files\Support Tools to check whether the support is existing or not, if yes then your windows XP Pro is ready to manage the samba 4 active directory.
+
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
  
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
== Step 2: Viewing samba 4 active directory content ==
 
  1. Login as domain 'testing1.org' administrator, press start->run.
 
  2. type dsa.msc.[http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/run.jpg Screen Shoot]
 
  3  Expand the testing1.org tree to see existing object in domain. [http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc.jpg Active Directory Screen Shoot]
 
  
= Managing Samba 4 Active Directory From WIndows XP Pro =
 
Due to Samba 4 Swat is not ready, managing samba 4 now is a little bit tricky. Most of the configuration we can done easily with active directory users and computers (dsa.msc), for adding a new users we need to use Windows 2003 support tools.
 
  
  
== Step 1: Adding user into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
Same with samba 3, samba 4 need an existing unix user before samba 4 user. Basically this task involve 3 jobs.
 
  
  1. Add Unix User in Ubuntu Feisty.
+
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
  $sudo useradd demo
 
  $sudo passwd demo (type whatever password you like)
 
  
  2. Using SWAT to add samba user.
+
Kerberos requires a synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
    2.1 Open up mozilla-firefox
 
    2.2 open url http://samba-4-server-ip:901
 
    2.3 User = administrator, password = testing1, domain = testing,->Login.
 
    2.4 click installation-> new user.
 
    2.5 type username=demo, unix name = demo, password you like twice [http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/swat-adduser.jpg Screen shoot for add user using swat]
 
  
Modify the user from Windows XP.
 
    2.1 Start -> run -> dsa.msc
 
    2.2 Open testing1.org tree, click container 'users'-> double click 'demo'.
 
    2.3 Edit first name, lastname and username [http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc-general.jpg Screen shoot for edit general user info with dsa.msc]
 
    2.4 Go to account tab, fill in 'demo' in both username logon name, choose domain (not the pre-win 2000) column.[http://www.extraknowledge.org/xoops/images/samba/dsa.msc-edituser.jpg Screen shoot for edit user account]
 
    2.5  set password never expired if you more convenient with it.
 
    2.6  Apply, then try to login with new user.
 
  
If you able to login, then mean the user is successfully created.
 
  
== Step 2: Adding groups into Samba 4 Active Directory ==
 
To manage resource more effectively, we need to use groups. Same with users we need to have a unix group and samba groups. I haven't test whether the groups is working properly, but I guess more or less this method is correct(Please feed back if you found any error).
 
  
  1. Creating Unix Groups
 
    $sudo groupadd grpdemo
 
    $sudo gedit /etc/group
 
   
 
    we can add user into group with following syntax:-
 
    grpdemo:x:1007:demo, user1, user2
 
  
  2. Adding group into samba 4 active directory
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
    2.1 As domain testing1.org administrator, start->run->dsa.msc.
 
    2.2 Open tree testing1.org, right click 'users' container->new->groups
 
    2.3 type group name 'grpdemo' in both column->ok (others leave default)
 
  
  3. Link the Unix groups to samba groups
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
    3.1 Start mozilla-firefox (or IE), open url : http://samba-svr-ip:901
 
    3.2 Username=administrator, password = testing1, domain = testing1
 
    3.3 Choose preview of new swat-> modules -> LDB Browser
 
    3.4 Open up sam.ldb tree, open up dc=testing1,dc=org, open cn=users
 
    3.5 Click CN= grpdemo-> press modify button
 
    3.6 At bottom most of right side, press '+' (Which is adding a new field)
 
    3.7 Put field name(left text box) = 'unixName', data(right text box) = 'grpdemo' -> ok
 
  
= Adding organization unit (ou) into samba 4 domain =
+
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
 +
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
 +
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
Organizational Unit (ou), is a most powerful feature I found in active directory. Basically this is some kind of container which allow us to drag & drop users,computers into it.
 
  
we can link several kind of group policy (You can consider it is a graphical setting) to an ou, and the setting will deploy to all users/computers under the ou. With a single domain we can have many ou and sub ou. So the result is it greatly reduce administrative afford because we able to manage everything via ou. The implementation of group policy will discuss at next chapter.
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
  
Before we create an ou, we must know how ou look likes? By default we can see a sample ou 'Domain Controllers', it looks difference with 'users' and 'computers' container right? We can deploy group policy to users or computers container.
+
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.  
  
  1. To create an ou, as testing1 domain administrator, start -> run -> dsa.msc
 
  2. right click testing1.org.
 
  3. choose new -? organizationalunit
 
  4. type 'oudemo'
 
  5. Then you will see an new ou appear, with the name 'oudemo'.
 
  6. You can drag user 'demo' into the new ou (Don't move other users! Unless you want to get stuck!)
 
  7. Right Click the 'oudemo', you can click sub ou with method 3.
 
  
Normaly we create ou base on total department we have, what branch we have and etc. Don't confuse between groups and ou, groups use to control the permission, ou use for deploy setting to all users/computers under it.
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
 +
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
  
= Implementing Group Policy (GPO) into samba 4 domain =
 
  Recently Samba 4 Active Directory had support group policy, and we can create the group policy on the fly. The basic ideal of group policy is:-
 
  1. Group Policy have 2 kind of settings, computers and users.
 
  2. Computer setting apply to computer, user setting apply to user
 
  3. We link the group policy to particular ou, and the group policy will effect all computers/users under the ou.
 
  
  1. To add a group policy, right click 'oudemo' ou->properties
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
  2. Choose group policy
 
  3. Press new, name as 'gpoudemo'
 
  4. Press edit to edit the policy.
 
  5. Here will demonstrate how to block user from access the control panel. Open the tree 'User Configuration'->'control paner'.
 
  6. Double click prohibit access to the control panel
 
  7. Press enable and then press ok. Now the all users under 'oudemo' won't able to access the control panel.
 
  8. Make sure user demo is inside the 'oudemo'(You can drag and drop it).
 
  9. Logout and login as user 'demo'
 
  10. You'll find user demo not able to access control panel
 
  
  * User configuration will effect once we logout and login.
 
  * Computer configuration will effect once restart computer
 
  
To learn more how to manage, implementing organizational unit, group policy, active directory. Google for Windows 2003 Active Directory implementation.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
Thanks for great efford samba development team,
+
{{Imbox
Good luck everybody
+
| type = important
End  :)
+
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Troubleshooting =
 +
 
 +
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
 +
 
 +
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
----
 +
[[Category:Domain Control]]
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]

Latest revision as of 08:03, 26 April 2019

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost localhost.localdomain
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the domain and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires a synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.


To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.