Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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= HOWTO to set up Samba as an Active Directory compatible Domain Controller =
+
= Introduction =
  
This document explains how to setup a simple Samba
+
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
server as a Domain Controller compatible with Microsoft's Active Directory, for use particularly by Microsoft Windows clients that are joined to the Active Directory Domain, for services such as Domain Logon.  We refer to this capability as being an AD DC for short.  
 
  
== Video Demonstrations of This HOWTO ==
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].
  
A set of [[samba4/videos|demonstration videos]] is available that
+
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
may provide a useful overview of the contents of this HOWTO.
+
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
== A Note on Versions ==
+
= Preparing the Installation =
  
Samba is developing rapidly. This HOWTO is frequently updated to reflect the latest changes in the Samba git repository. Please see the [[Release_Planning_for_Samba_4.0|Samba 4.0 Release Planning]] for more specifics on the release planning.
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
 +
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  
Please review the [[Samba4#Previous_Releases|Release Notes]] for the version you have installed, it may contain important information not yet reflected in this HOWTO.
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
 +
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
== Installing Samba ==
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
  
You will either need to install samba from a your distributions package manager or [[Build_Samba| Build Samba]]. At this time the packages are generally older and very hard to support due to the rapid development of the samba project, so it is recommended to build from source.
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  
=== Upgrading ===
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
 +
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Samba 4.x, be sure to review all the [[Samba4#Previous_Releases|Release Notes]] for the new version, as well as the notes for all the interim versions.
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
 +
127.0.0.1    localhost
 +
10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
If you are upgrading from source please refer to the [[Build_Samba#Upgrading_a_source_version|upgrading a source version]] otherwise please consult your distributions upgrade procedure.
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
 +
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
  
== Server Information ==
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
For the rest of this tutorial, we will be using the following configuration for our example AD DC configuration.  
+
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  
  Installation Directory: /usr/local/samba
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
  Server Hostname: samba (Your linux hostname will be used here)
 
  DNS Domain Name: samdom.example.com (This will also be your '''realm''')
 
  NT4 Domain Name: samdom
 
  IP Address: 192.168.1.2
 
  Server Role: DC
 
  
== Step 1: Provision Samba ==
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
 +
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
 +
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
 +
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
The provision step sets up a basic user database, and is used when you are setting up your Samba
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
server in its own domain. If you instead want to setup your Samba server as an additional domain controller
 
in an existing domain, then please see the [[#Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain|Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain]] section on this page.  If you want to migrate an existing Samba 3.x domain to Samba 4.0 as an AD DC, see the [[#Migrating_an_Existing_Samba_Domain_to_Samba|Migrating an Existing Samba 3 Domain to Samba 4]] section on this page.
 
  
The provision step must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
  
  # /usr/local/samba/bin/samba-tool domain provision
+
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
  
This will run the provision tool interactively. For realm use something like <tt>samdom.example.com</tt>, for domain (it should suggest this) use <tt>samdom</tt>.
 
  
If you run the previous command with a user who does not have write permission to the install directory, you will get an error similar to this:
 
tdb_open_ex: could not open file /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/DC=SAMDOM,DC=EXAMPLE,DC=COM. ldb: Permission denied
 
  
You can pass options to <tt>samba-tool domain provision</tt> command. You can run it with the <tt>--help</tt> option to see a list of them.
 
  
* Note: As of Samba 4.0.0 RC1 the provision command now uses Samba's internal DNS server by default, if you would like the older behavior, add <tt>--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ</tt> or <tt>--dns-backend=BIND_FLATFILE</tt> to the above provision command.
 
* Note: You may need to remove the <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt> file if you are re-running the provision command.
 
* Note: If you use the --adminpass='password' switch, be aware that there are password complexity requirements, so if you are getting some odd error with provision, try a more complex password ie. 'Pa$$w0rd'
 
* Note: If you have a "password complexity" failure during domain provisioning - read the following! The password complexity requirement is at least one uppercase letter, and one number, and at least eight characters long. If you don't use a complex enough password, the provision script will error, and  you will need to delete the /usr/local/samba/private and /usr/local/samba/etc directories, then run samba-tool domain provision again - with a better password.
 
  
== Step 2: Starting your Samba AD DC ==
+
= Installing Samba =
  
If you are planning to run Samba as a production server, then just run the <tt>samba</tt> binary as root
+
{{:Installing_Samba}}
  
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba
 
  
That will run Samba in 'standard' mode, which is suitable for
 
production use. Samba doesn't yet have init scripts included
 
for each platform, but making one for your platform should not be
 
difficult.  There are some example scripts (for RedHat/Fedora, Debian and Ubuntu) on the [[Samba4/InitScript]] page.
 
  
If you are running Samba as a developer you may find
 
the following more useful:
 
  
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba -i -M single
 
  
This will start <tt>samba</tt> with all log messages printed to stdout, and restricting it to a
+
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging <tt>samba</tt> with <tt>gdb</tt>
 
easier.
 
  
If you want to launch it under <tt>gdb</tt>, run <tt>samba</tt> as follows:
+
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
  
# gdb --args /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba -i -M single
+
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
  
Note that if you are running any Samba 3 <tt>smbd</tt> or <tt>nmbd</tt> processes
+
{{Imbox
they need to be stopped before starting <tt>samba</tt> from Samba 4.
+
| type = note
 +
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
  
Take care when running Samba commands if you also have a previous version of Samba installed.  To avoid inadvertently running the wrong version, you should consider putting the <tt>/usr/local/samba/bin</tt> and <tt>/usr/local/samba/sbin</tt> directories in the beginning of your <tt>PATH</tt> variable.
 
  
You can see what version of Samba, if any, is in your <tt>PATH</tt> variable by running the following:
+
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
# samba -V
 
  
== Step 3: Testing connectivity to your Samba AD DC ==
+
# samba-tool domain provision --help
  
First check you have the right version of <tt>smbclient</tt> by running the following command:
 
  
  $ /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient --version
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. There are no disadvantages to enabling the NIS extensions, but enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
 +
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
  
This should show you a version starting with "Version 4.0.XXXXX".
 
  
Now run this command to list the shares on your Samba server:
 
  
$ /usr/local/samba/bin/smbclient -L localhost -U%
+
== Parameter Explanation ==
  
The output of the command should be similar to what is shown below:
+
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
  
        Sharename      Type      Comment
+
{| class="wikitable"
        ---------       ----     -------
+
!Interactive Mode Setting
        netlogon        Disk
+
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
        sysvol          Disk
+
!Explanation
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.0.0)
+
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
  
The <tt>netlogon</tt> and <tt>sysvol</tt> shares are basic shares needed for Active Directory server
+
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
operation.  
+
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
  
If the command failed, restart samba by running the following:
 
  
# killall samba
+
{{Imbox
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba
+
| type = note
 +
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
To test that authentication is working, you should try to connect to the <tt>netlogon</tt> share
+
{{Imbox
using the Administrator password you set earlier:
+
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
  
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator%'p4$$word' -c 'ls'
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
 +
}}
  
The output of the command should be similar to what is shown below:
 
  
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 4.0.0]
 
  .                                  D        0  Wed Sep 12 21:00:36 2012
 
  ..                                  D        0  Wed Sep 12 21:02:28 2012
 
  
== Step 4: Configure DNS ==
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
  
A working DNS setup is essential to the correct operation of
+
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
Samba. Without the right DNS entries, Kerberos won't work, which in
 
turn means that many of the basic features of Samba won't work.
 
  
It is worth spending some extra time to ensure your DNS setup is correct, as debugging problems caused by mis-configured DNS can take a
+
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
lot of time later on.
+
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
  DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
  
For additional information on the DNS backends and a decission aid, which backend fits best to your needs, see the [[DNS|DNS]] page.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
 +
}}
  
==== Samba's Internal DNS Server ====
 
  
If you specified <tt>--dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL</TT> or did not specify any backend at all when you provisioned, there is no further setup required for the DNS server.
 
After you have dns configured, you still need to configure your <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> as shown in [[#Configure /etc/resolv.conf|Configure /etc/resolv.conf]]
 
  
If you want the internal DNS server to forward requests it isn't responsible for, then add the following to your smb.conf:
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
  dns forwarder = {IP-Address of the DNS you want to forward to}
 
  
'''Warning:''' If you are running X windows on your machine, networkmanager could be spawning dnsmasq or if you are using another DNS server, check the logs for lines like:
+
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
 +
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
 +
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
  
  Failed to bind to 0.0.0.0:53 TCP - NT_STATUS_ADDRESS_ALREADY_ASSOCIATED
+
  # samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
  
If you need to disable this you can open <tt>/etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf</tt> in your favorite editor as root, and comment out the line <tt>dns=dnsmasq</tt>, then <tt>restart network-manager</tt>
 
  
* More information about troubleshooting can be found on the [[Samba_troubleshooting_temp|Samba Troubleshooting]] page.
 
  
==== Bind as DNS backend ====
 
  
If you used any other --dns-backend= option in your provision line see the detailed [[Dns-backend_bind|Bind as DNS backend]] HowTo for additional setup instructions. There you will find many information how to setup and configure Bind in general and to work with Samba 4.
 
  
If the internal DNS currently maybe doesn't provide all features you require, you should also think about Bind as DNS backend. Is a good choice, if you e. g. already have or plan to have a complex DNS, beside the zones that should be administrated through samba.
+
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
  
=== Configure /etc/resolv.conf ===
+
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
  
For all the local DNS lookups to resolve correctly, we need to modify the server's <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> file. The following example should be sufficient to have DNS resolve properly:
+
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
  
domain samdom.example.com
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
  nameserver 192.168.1.2
+
  # systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
*Note: Remember to change the IP Address to your Samba server's IP Address
 
*Note: If your server is set up to receive its IP configuration via DHCP, the <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt> file might be automatically updated.  Refer to your distribution's documentation on how to stop this behavior.
 
  
=== Testing DNS ===
 
  
To test that DNS is working properly, run the following commands and compare the output to what is shown:
+
 
 +
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
 +
 
 +
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
 +
 
 +
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>search</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
 +
 
 +
search samdom.example.com
 +
nameserver 10.99.0.1
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Create a reverse zone =
 +
 
 +
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
 +
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 +
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
 +
 
 +
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
 +
 
 +
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Configuring Kerberos =
 +
 
 +
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
 +
 
 +
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
 +
 
 +
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
 +
 
 +
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
 +
 
 +
# samba
 +
 
 +
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
 +
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
 +
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Verifying the File Server ==
 +
 
 +
To list all shares provided by the DC:
 +
 
 +
Before Samba 4.11.0:
 +
 
 +
$ smbclient -L localhost -N
 +
Anonymous login successful
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
        ---------      ----      -------
 +
        netlogon        Disk     
 +
        sysvol          Disk     
 +
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Server              Comment
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 +
        Workgroup            Master
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 
 +
From Samba 4.11.0:
 +
 
 +
smbclient -L localhost -N
 +
Anonymous login successful
 +
 +
    Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
    ---------      ----      -------
 +
    sysvol          Disk     
 +
    netlogon        Disk     
 +
    IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
 +
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
 +
 
 +
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
 +
Enter Administrator's password:
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
  .                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
  ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
 +
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
 +
 
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Verifying DNS ==
 +
 
 +
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
 +
 
 +
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
  
 
  $ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 
  $ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
  _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 samba.samdom.example.com.
+
  _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
 
 +
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
  
 
  $ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 
  $ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
  _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 samba.samdom.example.com.
+
  _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
 
 
$ host -t A samba.samdom.example.com.
 
samba.samdom.example.com has address 10.0.0.1
 
  
The answers you get should be similar to the ones above (adjusted for your DNS domain name and hostname). If you get any errors,
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
carefully check your system logs to locate the problem.
 
  
== Step 5: Configure Kerberos ==
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
Kerberos configuration is handled by the <tt>krb5.conf</tt> file.  This file is typically located in the <tt>/etc</tt> directory, please refer to your distribution documentation for the location of this file on your system.  There is a sample file located at <tt>/usr/local/samba/share/setup/krb5.conf</tt> that is a suitable replacement for an existing file. This file is generated by provision and will look similar to the following:
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
[libdefaults]
 
    default_realm = SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
    dns_lookup_realm = false
 
    dns_lookup_kdc = true
 
  
*Note: If you have forgotten your realm, running <tt>samba-tool testparm --suppress-prompt | grep realm</tt> will let you know what you used.
 
  
=== Testing Kerberos ===
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  
The simplest test is to use the <tt>kinit</tt> command as follows:
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
  
  $ kinit administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
+
  $ kinit administrator
Password:
+
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  
*Note: You must specify your domain realm <tt>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</tt> in '''uppercase letters'''
+
: {{Imbox
*Note: Depending on your distribution <tt>kinit</tt> may just return you to a prompt, however, some distributions may return something like '''Warning: Your password will expire in 41 days on Thu Mar 28 04:38:35 2013.'''
+
| type = note
 +
| text = If you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command, the Kerberos realm is automatically appended.<br />Always enter the Kerberos realm in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
To verify that Kerberos is working, and that you received a ticket, run the following:
+
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
  
 
  $ klist
 
  $ klist
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_1000
+
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
 
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
+
  Valid starting     Expires           Service principal
+
  Valid starting       Expires             Service principal
  02/10/13 19:39:48 02/11/13 19:39:46 krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
+
  01.11.2016 08:45:00 12.11.2016 18:45:00 krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
 +
 
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
 +
 
 +
Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> or <code>chrony</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
  
If either <tt>kinit</tt> or <tt>klist</tt> do not exist on your system, refer to [[Samba_4_OS_Requirements]] on how to install the necessary packages.
 
  
You can also test Kerberos form a remote client, but you must first configure the client's <tt>krb5.conf</tt> and <tt>resolve.conf</tt> as shown previously.
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
  
*Note: If you are using a client behind NAT then you have to add the following to the <tt>krb5.conf</tt> on the domain controller server:
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
  
[kdc]
+
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
    check-ticket-addresses = false
+
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
 +
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
*Note: If provision generated you a password and you forgot it or didn't get it saved in some way, you can use "samba-tool user setpassword administrator" as root to reset it.
 
  
== Configure NTP (Optional) ==
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
The [[Configure_NTP|Configure NTP]] page includes the full NTP configuration process and the SELinux policies.
 
  
== Setup a basic File Share (Optional) ==
+
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.
  
The provisioning will create a very simple <tt>/usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf</tt> file with no non-system shares by default. The system sysvol and netlogon shares should be created for you , as these are needed for a domain controller.  
+
You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set <code>vfs objects = recycle</code> in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects <code>dfs_samba4</code> and <code>acl_xattr</code>. You must set <code>vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle</code>.  
  
If you are also using the server as a file server, or you have some other reason to share files then you should create such shares as needed. For example:
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
 +
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
  
[test]
 
      path = /data/test
 
      comment = Test Share
 
      read only = no
 
  
*Note: You will need to restart Samba to make new shares visible.
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
  
== Samba as a Print Server ==
 
  
For a detailed description on that topic, see the [[Samba_as_a_print_server|Setup Samba as a Print Server]] HowTo.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, you must be aware that it can be problematic and can cause strange errors.
 +
}}
  
= Configure a Windows Client to join our Samba Active Directory =
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
[[Configuring_a_windows_client_for_AD|Configuring a windows client to join our domain]] is useful when you need to start connecting windows clients.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
= Samba AD management =
 
  
You can manage your Samba AD just like a windows AD using the windows tools by using the following link [[Samba_AD_management_from_windows|Samba AD Management from windows]]
 
  
You may also want to use the linux command line, so you can [[Adding_users_with_samba_tool|add users with samba-tool]] as well.
 
  
= Joining a Windows Domain Controller as an Additional DC in a Domain =
 
  
Once you have a Samba domain controller set up, you can choose to join
+
= Troubleshooting =
additional domain controllers to the domain, whether they be
 
additional Samba domain controllers, or additional Windows domain
 
controllers.
 
  
If you wish to join an additional Samba domain controller to a domain,
+
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
then please see the [[Samba4/HOWTO/Join a domain as a DC|Joining a domain as a DC]] page. The instructions
 
on that page are the same for joining Samba to a Windows domain as
 
they are for joining Samba to an existing Samba domain.
 
  
If you wish to join a new Windows domain controller to a Samba domain,
 
then you should use the 'dcpromo' tool on the Windows machine. Please
 
see the normal instructions for installing dcpromo on Windows, with
 
the exception that you should not check the 'DNS server' option box
 
when it is offered. Right now you should either use Windows for DNS,
 
or use Samba and bind9 for DNS. Mixing the two can work, but it is an
 
advanced topic that is beyond the scope of this howto.
 
  
= Backup and Recovery of a Samba AD DC =
 
  
See the Samba [[Backup_and_Recovery|Backup and Recovery]] howto.
 
  
= Migrating an Existing Samba Domain to Samba  =
 
  
It is very likely that you already have a running Samba3 domain on your network.  The question is, how do you migrate that domain and all of its users and machines over to a new Samba 4 based domain without having to move every user profile and machine to the new domain?  The answer is the [[Samba4/samba-tool/domain/classicupgrade/HOWTO|samba-tool domain classicupgrade]] function.
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
  
= Connecting other services to your new/migrated Active Directory =
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
  
If you finished setting up or migrating to Samba 4, you maybe want to connect other services
 
to your new Active Directory. Have a look at the [[Samba4/beyond|Beyond Samba]] page.
 
  
= Setup your firewall =
 
  
If you are setting up samba to work with your firewall, check out the [[Samba_port_usage|Samba port usage]] page.
 
  
= Report Your Success/Failure! =
 
  
Samba, as a replicating domain controller, is still developing rapidly.
+
----
We'd like to hear from users about their successes and
+
[[Category:Domain Control]]
failures. We would encourage you to report both your successes and failures
+
[[Category:Active Directory]]
to the [mailto:samba-technical@lists.samba.org samba-technical] mailing list on http://lists.samba.org
 

Latest revision as of 12:50, 9 September 2020

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the search and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

Before Samba 4.11.0:

$ smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

From Samba 4.11.0:

smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful

    Sharename       Type      Comment
    ---------       ----      -------
    sysvol          Disk      
    netlogon        Disk      
    IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available


To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd or chrony service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.

You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set vfs objects = recycle in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects dfs_samba4 and acl_xattr. You must set vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle.

To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.