Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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= Samba4 developer howto =
+
= Introduction =
tridge@samba.org, December 2004
 
  
 +
Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
  
This is a very basic document on how to setup a simple Samba4
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].  
server. This is aimed at developers who are already familiar with
 
Samba3 and wish to participate in Samba4 development. This is not
 
aimed at production use of Samba4.
 
  
 +
Samba as an AD DC only supports:
 +
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).
 +
: Samba provides experimental support for the [https://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ MIT Kerberos] KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the <code>--with-system-mitkrb5</code> option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see [[Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC]].
  
== Step 1: download Samba4 ==
+
= Preparing the Installation =
  
There are 2 methods of doing this:
+
* Select a host name for your AD DC.
 +
: Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as <code>PDC</code> or <code>BDC</code>. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  
  method 1: "rsync -avz samba.org::ftp/unpacked/samba4 ."
+
* Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
 +
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that will not need to be changed. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm. Do not use <code>.local</code> for the TLD, this is used by Avahi.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
  method 2:  "svn co svn://svnanon.samba.org/samba/branches/SAMBA_4_0 samba4"
+
* Use a static IP address on the DC.
  
both methods will create a directory called "samba4" in the current
+
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
directory. If you don't have rsync or svn then install one of them.  
 
  
Since only released versions of Samba contain a pregenerated configure script,
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
you will have to generate it by hand:
+
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
  $ cd samba4/source
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
  $ ./autogen.sh
+
  127.0.0.1    localhost
 +
  10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
 +
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the <code>127.0.0.1</code> IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
Note that the above rsync command will give you a checked out svn
+
* If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
repository. So if you also have svn you can update it to the latest
+
:* Remove the existing <code>smb.conf</code> file. To list the path to the file:
version at some future date using:
 
  
  $ cd samba4
+
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
  $ svn up
+
    CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  
== Step 2: compile Samba4 ==
+
:* Remove all Samba database files, such as <code>*.tdb</code> and <code>*.ldb</code> files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
  
Recommended optional development libraries:
+
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
- acl and xattr development libraries
+
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
- gnutls
+
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
- readline
+
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
 +
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
  
Run this:
+
: Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  
  $ cd samba4/source
+
* Remove an existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file:
  $ ./configure
 
  $ make proto all
 
  
If you have gcc 3.4 or newer, then substitute "pch" for "proto" to
+
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
greatly speed up the compile process (about 5x faster).
 
  
== Step 3: install Samba4 ==
 
  
Run this as a user who have permission to write to the install
+
 
directory (defaults to /usr/local/samba). Use --prefix option to
+
 
configure above to change this.
+
 
 +
= Installing Samba =
 +
 
 +
{{:Installing_Samba}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
 +
 
 +
The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
 +
 
 +
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool domain provision --help
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = When provisioning a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. There are no disadvantages to enabling the NIS extensions, but enabling them in an existing domain requires manually extending the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
 +
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Parameter Explanation ==
 +
 
 +
Set the following parameters during the provisioning:
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Interactive Mode Setting
 +
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>. Do not use the computers short hostname.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
 +
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = do NOT use <code>NONE</code> as the DNS backend, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = If using Bind as the DNS backend, do NOT use <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code>, it is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Once you have provisioned the first DC in an AD domain, do not provision any further DCs in the same domain, [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Join]] any further DCs.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
 +
 
 +
To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
 +
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
  Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 +
  Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 +
  DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 +
  DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
 +
Administrator password: Passw0rd
 +
Retype password: Passw0rd
 +
Looking up IPv4 addresses
 +
Looking up IPv6 addresses
 +
No IPv6 address will be assigned
 +
Setting up share.ldb
 +
Setting up secrets.ldb
 +
Setting up the registry
 +
Setting up the privileges database
 +
Setting up idmap db
 +
Setting up SAM db
 +
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
 +
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
 +
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
 +
Adding configuration container
 +
Setting up sam.ldb schema
 +
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
 +
Setting up display specifiers
 +
Modifying display specifiers
 +
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                         
 +
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                               
 +
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
 +
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                     
 +
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                       
 +
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                       
 +
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                           
 +
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                 
 +
Server Role:          active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                   
 +
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                               
 +
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                   
 +
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
 +
 
 +
For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:
 +
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
 +
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>samdom.example.com</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>SAMDOM</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>Passw0rd</code>
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
 +
 
 +
Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
 +
 
 +
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
 +
 
 +
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
 +
# systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
 +
 
 +
Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
 +
 
 +
On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the <code>search</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
 +
 
 +
search samdom.example.com
 +
nameserver 10.99.0.1
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Create a reverse zone =
 +
 
 +
You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.
 +
 
 +
# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
 +
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 +
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
 +
 
 +
If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.
 +
 
 +
The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Configuring Kerberos =
 +
 
 +
In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
 +
 
 +
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:
 +
 
 +
# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
 +
 
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Do not create a symbolic link to the the generated <code>krb5.conf</code> file. In Samba 4.7 and later, the <code>/usr/local/samba/private/</code> directory is no longer accessible by other users than the <code>root</code> user. If the file is a symbolic link, other users are not able to read the file and, for example, dynamic DNS updates fail if you use the <code>BIND_DLZ</code> DNS back end.
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
 +
 
 +
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
 +
 
 +
# samba
 +
 
 +
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
 +
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
 +
* If you built Samba, see [[Managing_the_Samba_AD_DC_Service|Managing the Samba AD DC Service]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Verifying the File Server ==
 +
 
 +
To list all shares provided by the DC:
 +
 
 +
Before Samba 4.11.0:
 +
 
 +
$ smbclient -L localhost -N
 +
Anonymous login successful
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
 +
        Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
        ---------      ----      -------
 +
        netlogon        Disk     
 +
        sysvol          Disk     
 +
        IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 
   
 
   
  # make install
+
        Server              Comment
 +
        ---------            -------
 +
 +
        Workgroup            Master
 +
        ---------            -------
  
 +
From Samba 4.11.0:
  
== Step 4: provision Samba4 ==
+
smbclient -L localhost -N
 +
Anonymous login successful
 +
 +
    Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
    ---------      ----      -------
 +
    sysvol          Disk     
 +
    netlogon        Disk     
 +
    IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
 +
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available
  
The "provision" step sets up a basic user database. Make sure your smbscript
 
binary is installed in a directory listed in your PATH environment variable.
 
It is presumed it's available just like any other commands from your shell.
 
Must be run as a user with permission to write to the install directory.
 
  
  # cd source
+
{{Imbox
  # ./setup/provision --realm=YOUR.REALM --domain=YOURDOM --adminpass=SOMEPASSWORD
+
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
  
'YOURDOM' is the NT4 style domain name. 'YOUR.REALM' is your kerberos
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
realm, which is typically your DNS domain name.
 
  
== Step 5: Create a simple smb.conf ==
+
$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
 +
Enter Administrator's password:
 +
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 +
  .                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
  ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 +
 +
                49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
 +
 
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Verifying DNS ==
 +
 
 +
To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
 +
 
 +
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> SRV record in the domain:
 +
 
 +
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
 +
 
 +
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
 +
 
 +
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 +
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
The provisioning will create a very simple smb.conf with no shares by
+
* The A record of the domain controller:
default. You will need to update it to add at least one share. For
 
example:
 
  
  [test]
+
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
        path = /data/test
+
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
        read only = no
 
  
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
== Step 6: starting Samba4 ==
 
  
The simplest is to just run "smbd", but as a developer you may find
 
the following more useful:
 
  
  # smbd -i -M single
+
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  
that means "start smbd without messages in stdout, and running a
+
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
single process. That mode of operation makes debugging smbd with gdb
 
particularly easy.
 
  
Note that now it is no longer necessary to have an instance of nmbd
+
$ kinit administrator
from Samba 3 running. If you are running any smbd or nmbd processes
+
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
they need to be stopped before starting smbd from Samba 4.
 
  
Make sure you put the bin and sbin directories from your new install
+
: {{Imbox
in your $PATH. Make sure you run the right version!
+
| type = note
 +
| text = If you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command, the Kerberos realm is automatically appended.<br />Always enter the Kerberos realm in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
 +
* List the cached Kerberos tickets:
  
== Step 7: testing Samba4 ==
+
$ klist
 +
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
 +
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
 +
Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
 +
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 +
renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
  
try these commands:
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
    $ smbclient //localhost/test -Uadministrator%SOMEPASSWORD
 
or
 
    $ ./script/tests/test_posix.sh //localhost/test administrator SOMEPASSWORD
 
  
  
== NOTE about filesystem support ==
 
  
To use the advanced features of Samba4 you need a filesystem that
 
supports both the "user" and "system" xattr namespaces.
 
  
If you run Linux with a 2.6 kernel and ext3 this means you need to
+
= Configuring Time Synchronisation =
include the option "user_xattr" in your /etc/fstab. For example:
 
  
/dev/hda3              /home                  ext3    user_xattr    1 1
+
Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> or <code>chrony</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
  
You also need to compile your kernel with the XATTR and SECURITY
 
options for your filesystem. For ext3 that means you need:
 
  
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_XATTR=y
 
  CONFIG_EXT3_FS_SECURITY=y
 
  
If you are running a Linux 2.6 kernel with CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC
 
defined you can check this with the following command:
 
  
  $ zgrep CONFIG_EXT3_FS /proc/config.gz
 
  
If you don't have a filesystem with xattr support, then you can
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
simulate it by using the option:
 
  
  posix:eadb = /usr/local/samba/eadb.tdb
+
Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:
  
that will place all extra file attributes (NT ACLs, DOS EAs, streams
+
* For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
etc), in that tdb. It is not efficient, and doesn't scale well, but at
+
* It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
least it gives you a choice when you don't have a modern filesystem.
+
* This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.  
 +
* The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
 +
* mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.
  
=== Testing your filesystem ===
 
  
To test your filesystem support, install the 'attr' package and run
+
If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.
the following 4 commands as root:
 
  
  # touch test.txt
+
If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.  
  # setfattr -n user.test -v test test.txt
 
  # setfattr -n security.test -v test2 test.txt
 
  # getfattr -d test.txt
 
  # getfattr -n security.test -d test.txt
 
  
You should see output like this:
+
You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set <code>vfs objects = recycle</code> in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects <code>dfs_samba4</code> and <code>acl_xattr</code>. You must set <code>vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle</code>.
  
  # file: test.txt
+
To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
  user.test="test"
+
* [[Setting_up_Samba_as_a_Domain_Member|Setting up Samba as a Domain Member]]
 +
* [[Samba_File_Serving|Samba File Serving]]
  
  # file: test.txt
 
  security.test="test2"
 
  
If you get any "Operation not supported" errors then it means your
+
If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Configuring_Winbindd_on_a_Samba_AD_DC|Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC]].
kernel is not configured correctly, or your filesystem is not mounted
 
with the right options.
 
  
If you get any "Operation not permitted" errors then it probably means
 
you didn't try the test as root.
 
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, you must be aware that it can be problematic and can cause strange errors.
 +
}}
  
= Testing Samba4 in Ubuntu 7.04 howto =
+
{{Imbox
kstan79@gmail.com, 18-August-2007
+
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, do not add any of the 'idmap config' lines used on a Unix domain member. They will not work and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
*When you see this sentence, it mean this potion not yet ready. I can't add new page in this wiki, so I just append my tutorial at bottom.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = If you do use an AD DC as a fileserver, You must set the permissions from Windows, do not attempt to use any of the old methods (force user etc) . They will not work correctly and will cause problems.
 +
}}
  
  
== Step 1: Install required package ==
 
Ubuntu Feisty (7.04), by default not yet install required package for samba 4. To install all required package(We will remove bind8), type this command:-
 
  $sudo apt-get remove bind
 
  $sudo apt-get install autoconf bind9 libc6-dev
 
  
It will ask you to install additional package, simply press 'y' to accept it.
 
  
== Step 2: Download samba 4 latest source code ==
 
Type this command to get latest source (subversion)
 
  
  $cd /usr/src
+
= Troubleshooting =
  $sudo svn co svn://svnanon.samba.org/samba/branches/SAMBA_4_0 samba4
 
  
You will see the terminal start to download the source code, leave it until the end. When the samba4 source code is download completed, you will found a 'samba4' folder appear in /usr/src
+
For further details, see [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
  
== Step 3: Synchronize your samba 4 source code to the svn server ==
 
Samba 4 development is quite fast, you always can see something within a week. To update the latest source code:
 
  
  $cd /usr/src/samba4
 
  $sudo svn update
 
  
== Step 4: To compile and install samba 4 into Ubuntu 7.04 ==
 
  
To compile and install samba 4, we force it to install at /usr/local,
 
  
  $cd /usr/src/samba4/source
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
  $sudo ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
 
  $sudo make pch all
 
  $sudo make install
 
  $sudo ./setup/provision --realm=TESTING1.ORG --domain=TESTING1 --adminpass=TESTING1
 
  
If you use gcc older than 3.4, use 'make proto all' rather than 'make pch all'. If there is no error, your samba 4 is install successfully.
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
  
== Step 5: Setting up DNS Server for samba 4 in Ubuntu 7.04 ==
 
Samba 4 work as Windows Active Directory Server, and DNS Server is critical component in active directory. During compilation and installation, the samba4 help us to create a standard DNS zone.
 
  $sudo cp /usr/local/testing1.org.zone /etc/bind
 
  $sudo gedit /etc/bind/named.conf.local
 
  
At following line into the bottom of file:
 
  
----
 
  
zone "test.com" {
 
        type master;
 
        file "/etc/bind/test.com.zone";
 
};
 
  
 
----
 
----
 +
[[Category:Domain Control]]
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]

Latest revision as of 12:50, 9 September 2020

Introduction

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in a production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only supports:

Samba provides experimental support for the MIT Kerberos KDC provided by your operating system if you run Samba 4.7 or later and has been built using the --with-system-mitkrb5 option. In other cases Samba uses the Heimdal KDC included in Samba. For further details about Samba using the MIT KDC, and why it is experimental see Running a Samba AD DC with MIT Kerberos KDC.

Preparing the Installation

  • Select a host name for your AD DC.
Do not use NT4-only terms as host name, such as PDC or BDC. These modes do not exist in an AD and cause confusion.
  • Select a DNS domain for your AD forest. The name will also be used as the AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the DC.
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. AD DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to the 127.0.0.1 IP address or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  • If you previously ran a Samba installation on this host:
  • Remove the existing smb.conf file. To list the path to the file:
# smbd -b | grep "CONFIGFILE"
   CONFIGFILE: /usr/local/samba/etc/samba/smb.conf
  • Remove all Samba database files, such as *.tdb and *.ldb files. To list the folders containing Samba databases:
# smbd -b | egrep "LOCKDIR|STATEDIR|CACHEDIR|PRIVATE_DIR"
  LOCKDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/lock/
  STATEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/locks/
  CACHEDIR: /usr/local/samba/var/cache/
  PRIVATE_DIR: /usr/local/samba/private/
Starting with a clean environment helps to prevent confusion and ensures that no files from any previous Samba installation will be mixed with your new domain DC installation.
  • Remove an existing /etc/krb5.conf file:
# rm /etc/krb5.conf



Installing Samba




Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba AD provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

Set the following parameters during the provisioning:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions required for the ADUC Unix Attributes tab.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. The uppercase version of the AD DNS domain. For example: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name (Workgroup). This can be anything, but it must be one word, not longer than 15 characters and not containing a dot. It is recommended to use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom. Do not use the computers short hostname.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and will be removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.



Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba AD interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba AD non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the DC using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an AD use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your DC, set the AD DNS domain in the search and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

search samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Create a reverse zone

You can optionally add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

If you need more than one reverse zone (multiple subnets), just run the above command again but with the data for the other subnet.

The reverse zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Configuring Kerberos

In an AD, Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your DC. Copy this file to your operating system's Kerberos configuration. For example:

# cp /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the KDC.



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see Managing the Samba AD DC Service.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the DC:

Before Samba 4.11.0:

$ smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

From Samba 4.11.0:

smbclient -L localhost -N
Anonymous login successful

    Sharename       Type      Comment
    ---------       ----      -------
    sysvol          Disk      
    netlogon        Disk      
    IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba 4.12.6-Debian)
SMB1 disabled -- no workgroup available


To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your AD DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap SRV record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cached Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Synchronisation

Kerberos requires synchronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd or chrony service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

Whilst the Samba AD DC is able to provide file shares, just like all other installation modes, the Samba team does not recommend using a DC as a file server for the following reasons:

  • For anything but the smallest organisations, having more than one DC is a really good backup measure, and makes upgrades safer
  • It encourages upgrades of the DC to also be upgrades of the host OS every year or two, because there isn't complex data to transition or other services involved.
  • This means upgrades can be done by installing fresh, and replicating in the changes, which is better tested in Samba, gains new features and avoids a number of lingering data corruption risks.
  • The DC and file-server have different points at which an organisation would wish to upgrade. The needs for new features on the DC and file server come at different times. Currently the AD DC is evolving rapidly to gain features, whereas the fileserver, after over 20 years, is quite rightly more conservative.
  • mandatory smb signing is enforced on the DC.


If you do decide to use the Samba DC as a fileserver, please consider running a VM, on the DC, containing a separate Samba Unix domain member and use this instead.

If you must use the Samba DC as a fileserver, you should be aware that the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you to only configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Using POSIX ACLs with shares on a Samba DC does not work.

You should be aware that if wish to use a vfs object on a DC share e.g. recycle, you must not just set vfs objects = recycle in the share. Doing this will turn off the default vfs objects dfs_samba4 and acl_xattr. You must set vfs objects = dfs_samba4 acl_xattr recycle.

To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:


If you only have a small domain (small office, home network) and do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure Winbindd before you start setting up shares. For details, see Configuring Winbindd on a Samba AD DC.




Troubleshooting

For further details, see Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.