Difference between revisions of "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller"

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(Rewrote "Setting up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller". Rephrased text, clearer structure, added additional information, used markups, etc.)
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= Introduction =
 
= Introduction =
  
Since version 4.0, Samba can, additionally to a NT4 PDC, act as a Domain Controller that is compatible with Microsoft Active Directory. In the following, we explain how to set up Samba as an Active Directory Domain Controller from scratch. In addition, this documentation is the start for upgrading an existing Samba NT4-style domain to a Samba AD.
+
Starting with version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in an production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.
  
Whilst the Domain Controller seems capable of running as a full file server, it is suggested that organisations run a distinct file server to allow upgrades of each without disrupting the other. It is also suggested that medium-sized sites should run more than one DC. It also makes sense to have the DC's distinct from any file servers that may use the Domain Controllers. Additionally using distinct file servers avoids the idiosyncrasies in the winbindd configuration on the Active Directory Domain Controller. The Samba team does not recommend using a Samba-based Domain Controller as a file server, and recommend that users run a separate [[Setup_Samba_as_an_AD_Domain_Member|Domain Member]] with [[File_sharing|file shares]].
+
This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]].  
  
If you are looking for documentation about updating the Samba version of an existing Samba Active Directory Domain Controller, please consult your distribution upgrade procedure or see: [[Updating_Samba|Updating Samba]].
+
Samba as an AD DC only support:
 +
* the integrated LDAP server as AD back end. For details, see the frequently asked question (FAQ) [[FAQ#Does_Samba_AD_DCs_Support_OpenLDAP_or_Other_LDAP_Servers_as_Back_End.3F|Does Samba AD DCs Support OpenLDAP or Other LDAP Servers as Back End?]]
 +
* the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] Kerberos key distribution center (KDC). The AD-compatible Heimdal KDC is included in Samba and automatically installed.
  
Samba as an AD DC requires at least version 4.0.0, but it's always recommended to use the latest stable version of Samba. It will contain fixes for bugs from previous releases and may contain improved Microsoft Active Directory compatibility and additional features. See the [[Samba_Release_Planning|Samba release plan]] for more details about the latest maintained versions and their release notes.
 
  
Please note that you do not need to install or configure a separate Kerberos KDC for Samba to work. Samba includes an AD compatible KDC, currently based on an included copy of the [http://www.h5l.se/ Heimdal] project. Likewise Samba ships its own LDAP implementation for AD backends. OpenLDAP or other LDAP servers are not supported at the moment.
 
  
If you already have an Active Directory forest and want to join an additional Samba Domain Controller, see the [[Joining_a_Samba_DC_to_an_Existing_Active_Directory|Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory]] documentation.
 
  
'''See the [[Host_information_used_in_documentation|host information used in documentation]] page for used paths, hostnames, etc.'''
 
  
 +
= Preparing the Installation =
  
 +
* Select a DNS domain for your Active Directory (AD) forest. The name is additionally used as AD Kerberos realm.
 +
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = Make sure that you provision the AD using a DNS domain that does not change. Samba does not support renaming the AD DNS zone and Kerberos realm.
 +
}}
 +
: For additional information, see [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]].
  
 +
* Use a static IP address on the domain controller (DC).
  
 +
* Disable tools, such as <code>resolvconf</code>, that automatically update your <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> DNS resolver configuration file. Active Directory (AD) DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  
= Preconditions =
+
* Verify that no Samba processes are running:
 +
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
 +
: If the output lists any <code>samba</code>, <code>smbd</code>, <code>nmbd</code>, or <code>winbindd</code> processes, shut down the processes.
  
* Make sure that your future DC uses a static IP address. DHCP can cause trouble if the address changes.
+
* Verify that the <code>/etc/hosts</code> file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-quallified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
 
 
* If resolvconf is installed on your future DC, you should remove this or it may alter your /etc/resolv.conf to point to the wrong nameserver.
 
 
 
* Read carefully the [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]] for information, frequent pitfalls, etc. about choosing a DNS and NetBIOS name for your AD. Currently Samba AD does not support changing this, so this makes it to an important decision!
 
 
 
* Check your /etc/hosts for a correct resolution of the hostname to its IP:
 
 
  127.0.0.1    localhost.localdomain      localhost
 
  127.0.0.1    localhost.localdomain      localhost
  10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1
+
  ''10.99.0.1    DC1.samdom.example.com    DC1''
: Ensure that your DC hostname resolves to its LAN IP and not to 127.0.0.1!
+
:The host name and FQDN must not resolve to <code>127.0.0.1</code> or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.
  
* Remove any previous existing installation of Samba. If upgrading from a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD, only keep your previous smb.conf and the databases.
 
  
  
  
  
 +
= Installing Samba =
  
= Installation =
+
For details, see [[Installing_Samba|Installing Samba]].
  
Before you start, check the [[Operating_System_Requirements|Operating System Requirements]] for dependencies.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = Install a maintained Samba version. For details, see [[Samba_Release_Planning|Samba Release Planning]].
 +
}}
  
You have the following options to install Samba:
 
  
* [[Build_Samba_from_Source|Build Samba]] yourself
 
  
* Install [[Distribution-specific_Package_Installation|distribution specific packages]]
 
: Make sure that you use a recent Samba and note, that not all distributions currently ship Samba packages, with Active Directory Domain Controller capabilities. One of the reasons is, that some distributions are based on MIT Kerberos, while Samba (currently) only supports Heimdal Kerberos. E. g. Red Hat operating systems (RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, etc.) are affected. In this case, choose one of the other install options.
 
  
* Install SerNet [http://www.samba.plus Samba+]/[http://www.samba.plus/older-packages/ Enterprise] packages
 
  
 +
== Using the Correct Paths to Samba Commands ==
  
 
+
If you built Samba, add the directories containing the commands to the beginning of your <code>$PATH</code> variable. For example:
== Paths ==
 
 
 
You should consider putting the directories "/usr/local/samba/bin/" and "/usr/local/samba/sbin/" at the beginning of your $PATH variable:
 
  
 
  export PATH=/usr/local/samba/bin/:/usr/local/samba/sbin/:$PATH
 
  export PATH=/usr/local/samba/bin/:/usr/local/samba/sbin/:$PATH
  
To permanently add this to your system or user configuration, see your distribution's documentation.
+
To permanently update your <code>$PATH</code>, see your distribution's documentation.
  
  
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= Provisioning the Samba Active Directory =
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= Provisioning a Samba Active Directory =
  
'''''Migration of a Samba NT4 domain:''' If you plan to migrate an existing Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD, you do not manually provision the domain. The migration is done by the classicupgrade process. Skip this section and follow [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 domain to a Samba AD domain (classic upgrade)]]. Come back afterwards and continue with [[#Testing_your_Samba_Domain_Controller|Testing your Samba Domain Controller]].''
+
The Samba Active Directory (AD) provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.
  
 +
If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see [[Migrating_a_Samba_NT4_Domain_to_Samba_AD_(Classic_Upgrade)|Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade)]].
  
When Samba sets up the first Domain Controller in a Domain, the provisioning creates an initial Active Directory database. This must be done with root privileges, to enable writing to the installation directory and setting the correct permissions on files and folders.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The AD provisioning requires root permissions to create files and set permissions.
 +
}}
  
  
First make yourself familiar with the possible parameters and options of the provisioning:
+
The <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:
  
 
  # samba-tool domain provision --help
 
  # samba-tool domain provision --help
  
  
If your Domain Controller has multiple network interfaces, the following two "samba-tool" options are required, to prevent the tool auto-choosing one of the IPv4/IPv6 addresses of the interfaces. Furthermore it is necessary to bind Samba to the desired interface.  
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = When provisinging a new AD, it is recommended to enable the NIS extensions by passing the <code>--use-rfc2307</code> parameter to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to store Unix attributes in AD, such as user IDs (UID), home directories paths, group IDs (GID). Enabling the NIS extensions has no disadvantages not used. However, to enable them in an existing domain requires to manually extend the AD schema. For further details about Unix attributes in AD, see:
 +
* [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]]
 +
* [[Idmap_config_ad|idmap config = ad]]
 +
}}
  
# samba-tool domain provision ..... --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"
 
  
  
There are two ways to provision a domain, non-interactively, where you supply all the required options with the command, or interactively, this way you will be asked for the required options.
+
== Parameter Explanation ==
  
'''Note:''' parameters are explained below.
+
You have to set the following parameters during the provisioning process:
  
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Interactive Mode Setting
 +
!Non-interactive Mode Parameter
 +
!Explanation
 +
|-
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|<code>--use-rfc2307</code>
 +
|Enables the NIS extensions.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Realm</code>
 +
|<code>--realm</code>
 +
|Kerberos realm. This is also used as the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom.example.com</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Domain</code>
 +
|<code>--domain</code>
 +
|NetBIOS domain name. Always use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: <code>samdom</code>.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Server Role</code>
 +
|<code>--server-role</code>
 +
|Installs the domain controller <code>DC</code> role.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS backend</code>
 +
|<code>--dns-backend</code>
 +
|Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the <code>BIND9_FLATFILE</code> is not supported and removed in a future Samba version.
 +
|-
 +
|<code>DNS forwarder IP address</code>
 +
|not available
 +
|This setting is only available when using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end. For details, see [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End#Setting_up_a_DNS_Forwarder|Setting up a DNS Forwarder]].
 +
|-
 +
|<code>Administrator password</code>
 +
|<code>--adminpass</code>
 +
|Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see [https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements].
 +
|}
  
Non-interactively provision using the internal DNS server:
+
Other parameters frequently used with the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command:
 +
* <code>--option="interfaces=lo ''eth0''" --option="bind interfaces only=yes"</code>: If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the <code>samba-tool</code> command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.
  
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --server-role=dc --adminpass=Passw0rd
 
  
  
Non-interactively provision using the Bind9 DNS server:
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode ==
  
# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ --domain=SAMDOM --server-role=dc --adminpass=Passw0rd
+
To provision a Samba Active Directory (AD) interactively, run:
 
 
 
 
Interactively provision a new domain:
 
  
 
  # samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
 
  # samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
  Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
+
  Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: ''SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM''
   Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
+
   Domain [SAMDOM]: ''SAMDOM''
 
   Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 
   Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
   DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
+
   DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: ''SAMBA_INTERNAL''
   DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
+
   DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: ''8.8.8.8''
  Administrator password: Passw0rd
+
  Administrator password: ''Passw0rd''
 
  Retype password: Passw0rd
 
  Retype password: Passw0rd
 
  Looking up IPv4 addresses
 
  Looking up IPv4 addresses
Line 149: Line 186:
 
  DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
 
  DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The interactive provisioning mode supports passing further parameters to the <code>samba-tool domain provision</code> command. This enables you to modify parameters that are not part of the interactive setup.
 +
}}
  
<u>Parameter explanations:</u>
 
  
  
<u>--use-rfc2307:</u> Enables NIS extensions. They allow a central management of Unix attributes (UIDs, shells, GIDs, etc.) inside Active Directory. It is recommended to always enable this feature during the provisioning. There are no disadvantages in not using it, but you may later find yourself in a situation where the central management of Unix account/group information becomes a requirement. Enabling it afterwards requires additional work such as manually extending the AD schema. For further information about RFC2307, see [[Idmap_config_ad|General information on RFC2307]] and [[Setting_up_RFC2307_in_AD|Setting up RFC2307 in AD]].
+
== Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode ==
  
 +
For example, to provision a Samba Active Directory (AD) non-interactively with the following settings:
 +
* Server role: <code>dc</code>
 +
* NIS extensions enabled
 +
* Internal DNS back end
 +
* Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: <code>''samdom.example.com''</code>
 +
* NetBIOS domain name: <code>''SAMDOM''</code>
 +
* Domain administrator password: <code>''Passw0rd''</code>
  
<u>--interactive:</u> Use interactive provisioning. The defaults are the values in the squared brackets, they will be used if no other input is made.
+
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=''SAMBA_INTERNAL'' --realm=''SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM'' --domain=''SAMDOM'' --adminpass=''Passw0rd''
  
  
<u>--realm or Realm:</u> Kerberos Realm and AD DNS domain written in upper case. You should always use a subdomain of your domain name (e. g. samdom.example.com). Never use your domain name (example.com) for your Active Directory DNS domain. This prevent you accessing accessing servers using that name, like web server, because the domain is resolved to the IP(s) of your Domain Controller(s) instead! See the [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]] for further information and help.
 
  
  
<u>--domain or Domain:</u> NT4 NetBIOS domain name in upper case used by AD for compatibility reasons. Maximum name length: 15 characters. Usually - and that's what we recommend - this is the first part of the AD DNS name. In any case if using something different, make sure that it matches the [https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/909264 naming conventions in Active Directory (section "NetBIOS domain names")]. Please note, that even if some punctuation marks like periods are allowed, they can cause trouble in some situations and should be avoided! See the [[Active_Directory_Naming_FAQ|Active Directory Naming FAQ]] for further information and help.
 
  
 +
= Setting up the AD DNS back end =
  
<u>Server Role:</u> 'dc' for Domain Controller.
+
Skip this step if you provisioned the domain controller (DC) using the <code>SAMBA_INTERNAL</code> DNS back end.
  
 +
* Set up the BIND DNS server and the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module. For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
  
<u>--dns-backend or DNS backend:</u> Supported DNS backends are the [[Samba_Internal_DNS_Back_End|Samba Internal DNS Back End]] and [[BIND9_DLZ_DNS_Back_End|BIND9_DLZ]]. We used the default - the internal DNS - in our example above. It is the best choice if you do not have complex DNS requirements. See [[The_Samba_AD_DNS_Back_Ends#Which_DNS_backend_should_I_choose.3F|Which DNS backend should I choose?]] for a comparison and suggestions. If you have chosen BIND9_DLZ as backend, you must setup and configure BIND, before first starting your Domain Controller. See [[BIND9_DLZ_DNS_Back_End|Configure BIND as backend for Samba AD]] for further setup information. If you later find out that your DNS backend choice doesn't fit your needs, you can [[Changing_the_DNS_Back_End_of_a_Samba_AD_DC|change it afterwards]]. Do not use BIND9_FLATFILE as the DNS backend. It isn't documented and is not supported! Seeing as AD heavily relies on DNS, the first DC in an AD must act as a DNS server, so you can't choose NONE here.
+
* Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
 +
# systemctl start named
 +
: For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.
  
  
<u>DNS forwarder IP address:</u> You are only prompted for this information, if you choose the Samba internal DNS as the backend. It defines the IP address of one DNS server, to which DNS queries should be forwarded, when your DNS server isn't authoritative for a zone. Commonly it is your providers DNS server IP address.
 
  
  
<u>Administrator password:</u> The Domain Administrators password. It must meet the complexity requirements (see https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc786468%28v=ws.10%29.aspx):
+
= Configuring the DNS Resolver =
* At least 8 characters
 
* Containing at least three of the following five character groups
 
** Uppercase characters of European languages (A through Z, with diacritic marks, Greek and Cyrillic characters)
 
** Lowercase characters of European languages (a through z, sharp-s, with diacritic marks, Greek and Cyrillic characters)
 
** Base 10 digits (0 through 9)
 
** Nonalphanumeric characters: ~!@#$%^&*_-+=`|\(){}[]:;"'<>,.?/
 
** Any Unicode character that is categorized as an alphabetic character but is not uppercase or lowercase. This includes Unicode characters from Asian languages.
 
:If the password doesn't fulfil the complexity requirements, the provisioning will fail and you will have to start over (remove the newly generated "smb.conf" in this case).
 
  
 +
Domain members in an Active Directory (AD) use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server, that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.
  
 +
On your domain controller (DC), set the AD DNS domain in the <code>domain</code> and the IP of your DC in the <code>nameserver</code> parameter of the <code>/etc/resolv.conf</code> file. For example:
  
 +
domain ''samdom.example.com''
 +
nameserver ''10.99.0.1''
  
  
= Testing your Samba Domain Controller =
 
  
'''Note: If you are running any "smbd", "nmbd" or "winbindd" processes from previous installations, they need to be stopped before starting "samba" from your new DC installation!'''
 
  
  
To start the Samba Active Directory Domain Controller in "standard" mode, which is suitable for production use, run
+
= Configuring Kerberos =
 +
 
 +
In an Active Directory (AD), Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.
 +
 
 +
During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your domain controller (DC). To use, remove your existing <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> file and create a symbolic link to the pre-configured Kerberos configuration:
 +
 
 +
# rm /etc/krb5.conf
 +
# ln -sf /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
 +
 
 +
The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the Kerberos distribution center (KDC).
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Testing your Samba AD DC =
 +
 
 +
To start the <code>samba</code> service manually, enter:
  
 
  # samba
 
  # samba
 +
 +
Samba does not provide System V init scripts, <code>systemd</code>, <code>upstart</code>, or other services configuration files.
 +
* If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
 +
* If you built Samba, see your distribution's documentation for how to create a script or configuration to start services. For user-created example System V init scripts, see [[Samba_AD_Init_Script_Examples|Samba AD Init Script Examples]].
  
  
Samba doesn't yet have init scripts included. You can find examples on the [[Samba_AD_Init_Script_Examples|Samba AD Init Script Examples]] page.
 
  
 +
== Verifying the File Server ==
  
Run "smbclient", to check if Samba provides the AD DC default shares "netlogon" and "sysvol", that were created in your "smb.conf" during provisioning/upgrading:
+
To list all shares provided by the domain controller (DC):
  
 
  $ smbclient -L localhost -U%
 
  $ smbclient -L localhost -U%
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 4.x.y]
+
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 
   
 
   
 
         Sharename      Type      Comment
 
         Sharename      Type      Comment
Line 210: Line 273:
 
         netlogon        Disk       
 
         netlogon        Disk       
 
         sysvol          Disk       
 
         sysvol          Disk       
         IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba 4.x.y)
+
         IPC$            IPC      IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 4.x.y]
+
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 
   
 
   
 
         Server              Comment
 
         Server              Comment
Line 219: Line 282:
 
         ---------            -------
 
         ---------            -------
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The <code>netlogon</code> and <code>sysvol</code> shares were auto-created during the provisioning and must exist on a DC.
 +
}}
  
To test that authentication is working, you should try to connect to the "netlogon" share, using the Domain Administrator account that was created during provisioning/upgrading:
+
To verify authentication, connect to the <code>netlogon</code> share using the domain administrator account:
  
 
  $ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
 
  $ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
  Enter Administrator's password: Passw0rd
+
  Enter Administrator's password:  
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba 4.x.y]
+
  Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
   .                                  D        0  Sat Jul 5 08:40:00 2015
+
   .                                  D        0  Tue Nov 1 08:40:00 2016
   ..                                  D        0  Sat Jul 5 08:40:00 2015
+
   ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov 1 08:40:00 2016
 
   
 
   
 
                 49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
 
                 49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available
  
 +
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
If any of the connection tests fail, check out the [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]] page.
 
  
  
 +
== Verifying DNS ==
  
 +
To verify that your Active Directory (AD) DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:
  
 +
* The tcp-based <code>_ldap</code> service (SRV) resource record in the domain:
  
= Configure DNS =
+
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.''samdom.example.com''.
 +
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
A working DNS is essential for the correct operation of an Active Directory! E. g. without the right DNS entries, Kerberos won't work, which in turn means that many of the basic features won't work. It is worth spending some extra time ensuring your DNS setup is correct, because debugging problems caused by incorrect DNS configuration can take a lot of time later.
+
* The udp-based <code>_kerberos</code> SRV resource record in the domain:
  
 +
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.''samdom.example.com''.
 +
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  
 +
* The A record of the domain controller:
  
== Configure /etc/resolv.conf ==
+
  $ host -t A dc1.''samdom.example.com''.
 
 
Your Domain Controller requires a name server that is able to resolve queries to Active Directory zones. Because this is your first Domain Controller in your AD forest, use the DCs IP and domain name in your /etc/resolv.conf:
 
 
 
domain samdom.example.com
 
nameserver 10.99.0.1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
== Testing DNS ==
 
 
 
To test that DNS is working properly, run the following commands and compare the output to what is shown:
 
 
 
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
 
 
 
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
 
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
 
 
 
  $ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
 
 
  dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
 
  dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1
  
If you receive any errors, check your system logs to locate the problem.
+
If one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
  
  
 +
== Verifying Kerberos ==
  
 +
* Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
  
= Configure Kerberos =
+
$ kinit administrator
 +
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  
== Configure /etc/krb5.conf ==
+
: {{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The Kerberos realm is automatically appended, if you do not pass the principal in the <code>user@REALM</code> format to the <code>kinit</code> command.<br />Set Kerberos realms always in uppercase.
 +
}}
  
Kerberos is an important part of Active Directory. Typically the configuration is done in /etc/krb5.conf. During provisioning, a working sample configuration will be created. You can replace your krb5.conf file with the sample by copying or creating a symlink:
+
* List the cacheed Kerberos tickets:
  
  # ln -sf /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf
+
  $ klist
 
 
If you cannot find your copy of krb5.conf, or just want to create it yourself, /etc/krb5.conf needs to look like this:
 
 
 
[libdefaults]
 
    default_realm = SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
    dns_lookup_realm = false
 
    dns_lookup_kdc = true
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
== Testing Kerberos ==
 
 
 
Use "kinit" to obtain a Kerberos ticket:
 
 
 
# kinit administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM: Passw0rd
 
 
 
'''''Note:''' You must always specify your realm in uppercase letters!''
 
 
 
Depending on your distribution, "kinit" may just return you to a prompt when successful. To verify that Kerberos is working and that you had received a ticket, run:
 
 
 
# klist
 
 
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
 
  Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
 
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
  Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 
   
 
   
 
  Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
 
  Valid starting      Expires              Service principal
  08.09.2015 14:27:45 09.09.2015 00:27:45 krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
+
  01.11.2016 08:45:00 12.11.2016 18:45:00 krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
  renew until 09.09.2015 14:27:42
+
  renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59
 
 
  
 +
If you one or more tests fail, see [[#Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]].
  
  
  
= Configure NTP =
 
  
Active Directory requires close time synchronization between all participant machines for Kerberos to work properly. It's highly recommended to use NTP or another form of time synchronization on your Domain Controller! The [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]] documentation will provide all necessary information, to configure NTP on an AD Domain Controller.
 
  
 +
= Configuring Time Syncronisation =
  
 +
Kerberos requires a syncronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the <code>ntpd</code> service, see [[Time_Synchronisation|Time Synchronisation]].
  
  
  
= Using a DC as a fileserver =
 
  
The Samba team does not recommend using a Samba AD DC as a 'fileserver', but accepts that sometimes a DC might have to be used in such a way.
 
Before going down that path, it is recommended that you run another instance of Samba inside a VM and use this as a fileserver instead.
 
  
If you cannot, or do not want to do this, you will need to set up the libnss links, for instructions on how to do this see [[Setup_Samba_as_an_AD_Domain_Member#libnss_winbind|here]].
+
= Using the Domain Controller as a File Server =
  
 +
The Samba Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC) is able to provide file shares, such as all other installation modes. However, the Samba team does not recommend to use a DC as file server because the DC <code>smbd</code> process has some limitations compared with the service in non-DC setups. For example, the auto-enabled <code>acl_xattr</code> virtual file system (VFS) object enables you only to configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Running shares with POSIX ACLs on a Samba DC is not supported. To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:
 +
* [[Setup_Samba_as_an_AD_Domain_Member|Setup_Samba_as_an_AD_Domain_Member]]
 +
* [[File_sharing|File Sharing]]
  
 +
If you do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure <code>libnss_winbind</code> before you start setting up shares. For details, see [[Setup_Samba_as_an_AD_Domain_Member#libnss_winbind|libsss_winbind]].
  
  
= Troubleshooting =
 
  
If you encounter any problems when using this documentation, see the [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]] page.
 
  
  
 +
= Troubleshooting =
  
 
+
See [[Samba_AD_DC_Troubleshooting|Samba AD DC Troubleshooting]].
 
 
= Further documentation =
 
 
 
The Samba Wiki provides a lot of useful [[User_Documentation|documentation]] on administering your DC, ([[Backup and restore an Samba AD DC|Backup and restore a Samba AD DC]], [[Shares_with_Windows_ACLs|Setup shares with Windows ACLs]], [[Setup_Samba_as_an_AD_Domain_Member#libnss_winbind|Setup Winbind]], etc.) and daily work ([[Joining_a_Windows_Client_or_Server_to_a_Domain|Joining a Windows Client or Server to a Domain]], [[Installing RSAT|Installing RSAT on Windows for AD Management]], etc.).
 
 
 
See the [[User_Documentation|Samba user documentation]] for a great overview.
 
  
  
Line 347: Line 380:
  
  
= Report your success/failure! =
+
= Further Samba-related Documentation =
  
We would encourage you to report your successes and failures to the Samba mailing list on https://lists.samba.org/mailman/listinfo/samba.
+
See [[User_Documentation|User Documentation]].
  
Suggestions on improving the documentation has the same importance as reporting [https://bugzilla.samba.org/ Bugs] and complications.
 
  
  

Revision as of 18:17, 1 November 2016

Introduction

Starting with version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). If you are installing Samba in an production environment, it is recommended to run two or more DCs for failover reasons.

This documentation describes how to set up Samba as the first DC to build a new AD forest. Additionally, use this documentation if you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to Samba AD. To join Samba as an additional DC to an existing AD forest, see Joining a Samba DC to an Existing Active Directory.

Samba as an AD DC only support:



Preparing the Installation

  • Select a DNS domain for your Active Directory (AD) forest. The name is additionally used as AD Kerberos realm.
For additional information, see Active Directory Naming FAQ.
  • Use a static IP address on the domain controller (DC).
  • Disable tools, such as resolvconf, that automatically update your /etc/resolv.conf DNS resolver configuration file. Active Directory (AD) DCs and domain members must use an DNS server that is able to resolve the AD DNS zones.
  • Verify that no Samba processes are running:
# ps ax | egrep "samba|smbd|nmbd|winbindd"
If the output lists any samba, smbd, nmbd, or winbindd processes, shut down the processes.
  • Verify that the /etc/hosts file on the DC correctly resolves the fully-quallified domain name (FQDN) and short host name to the LAN IP address of the DC. For example:
127.0.0.1     localhost.localdomain      localhost
10.99.0.1     DC1.samdom.example.com     DC1
The host name and FQDN must not resolve to 127.0.0.1 or any other IP address than the one used on the LAN interface of the DC.



Installing Samba

For details, see Installing Samba.



Using the Correct Paths to Samba Commands

If you built Samba, add the directories containing the commands to the beginning of your $PATH variable. For example:

export PATH=/usr/local/samba/bin/:/usr/local/samba/sbin/:$PATH

To permanently update your $PATH, see your distribution's documentation.



Provisioning a Samba Active Directory

The Samba Active Directory (AD) provisioning process creates the AD databases and adds initial records, such as the domain administrator account and required DNS entries.

If you are migrating a Samba NT4 domain to AD, skip this step and run the Samba classic upgrade. For details, see Migrating a Samba NT4 Domain to Samba AD (Classic Upgrade).


The samba-tool domain provision command provides several parameters to use with the interactive and non-interactive setup. For details, see:

# samba-tool domain provision --help



Parameter Explanation

You have to set the following parameters during the provisioning process:

Interactive Mode Setting Non-interactive Mode Parameter Explanation
--use-rfc2307 --use-rfc2307 Enables the NIS extensions.
Realm --realm Kerberos realm. This is also used as the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom.example.com.
Domain --domain NetBIOS domain name. Always use the first part of the AD DNS domain. For example: samdom.
Server Role --server-role Installs the domain controller DC role.
DNS backend --dns-backend Sets the DNS back end. The first DC in an AD must be installed using a DNS back end. Note that the BIND9_FLATFILE is not supported and removed in a future Samba version.
DNS forwarder IP address not available This setting is only available when using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end. For details, see Setting up a DNS Forwarder.
Administrator password --adminpass Sets the domain administrator password. If the password does not match the complexity requirements, the provisioning fails. For details, see Microsoft TechNet: Passwords must meet complexity requirements.

Other parameters frequently used with the samba-tool domain provision command:

  • --option="interfaces=lo eth0" --option="bind interfaces only=yes": If your server has multiple network interfaces, use these options to bind Samba to the specified interfaces. This enables the samba-tool command to register the correct LAN IP address in the directory during the join.


Provisioning Samba AD in Interactive Mode

To provision a Samba Active Directory (AD) interactively, run:

# samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --interactive
Realm [SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]: SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
 Domain [SAMDOM]: SAMDOM
 Server Role (dc, member, standalone) [dc]: dc
 DNS backend (SAMBA_INTERNAL, BIND9_FLATFILE, BIND9_DLZ, NONE) [SAMBA_INTERNAL]: SAMBA_INTERNAL
 DNS forwarder IP address (write 'none' to disable forwarding) [10.99.0.1]: 8.8.8.8
Administrator password: Passw0rd
Retype password: Passw0rd
Looking up IPv4 addresses
Looking up IPv6 addresses
No IPv6 address will be assigned
Setting up share.ldb
Setting up secrets.ldb
Setting up the registry
Setting up the privileges database
Setting up idmap db
Setting up SAM db
Setting up sam.ldb partitions and settings
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE
Pre-loading the Samba 4 and AD schema
Adding DomainDN: DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com
Adding configuration container
Setting up sam.ldb schema
Setting up sam.ldb configuration data
Setting up display specifiers
Modifying display specifiers
Adding users container                                                                                                                                                                                        
Modifying users container                                                                                                                                                                                     
Adding computers container                                                                                                                                                                                    
Modifying computers container                                                                                                                                                                                 
Setting up sam.ldb data                                                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up well known security principals                                                                                                                                                                     
Setting up sam.ldb users and groups                                                                                                                                                                           
Setting up self join                                                                                                                                                                                          
Adding DNS accounts                                                                                                                                                                                           
Creating CN=MicrosoftDNS,CN=System,DC=samdom,DC=example,DC=com                                                                                                                                                
Creating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                         
Populating DomainDnsZones and ForestDnsZones partitions                                                                                                                                                       
Setting up sam.ldb rootDSE marking as synchronized                                                                                                                                                            
Fixing provision GUIDs                                                                                                                                                                                        
A Kerberos configuration suitable for Samba 4 has been generated at /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf                                                                                                        
Setting up fake yp server settings                                                                                                                                                                            
Once the above files are installed, your Samba4 server will be ready to use                                                                                                                                   
Server Role:           active directory domain controller                                                                                                                                                     
Hostname:              DC1                                                                                                                                                                                    
NetBIOS Domain:        SAMDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 
DNS Domain:            samdom.example.com                                                                                                                                                                     
DOMAIN SID:            S-1-5-21-2614513918-2685075268-614796884


Provisioning Samba AD in Non-interactive Mode

For example, to provision a Samba Active Directory (AD) non-interactively with the following settings:

  • Server role: dc
  • NIS extensions enabled
  • Internal DNS back end
  • Kerberos realm and AD DNS zone: samdom.example.com
  • NetBIOS domain name: SAMDOM
  • Domain administrator password: Passw0rd
# samba-tool domain provision --server-role=dc --use-rfc2307 --dns-backend=SAMBA_INTERNAL --realm=SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM --domain=SAMDOM --adminpass=Passw0rd



Setting up the AD DNS back end

Skip this step if you provisioned the domain controller (DC) using the SAMBA_INTERNAL DNS back end.

  • Start the BIND DNS server. For example:
# systemctl start named
For details how to start services, see you distribution's documentation.



Configuring the DNS Resolver

Domain members in an Active Directory (AD) use DNS to locate services, such as LDAP and Kerberos. For that, they need to use a DNS server, that is able to resolve the AD DNS zone.

On your domain controller (DC), set the AD DNS domain in the domain and the IP of your DC in the nameserver parameter of the /etc/resolv.conf file. For example:

domain samdom.example.com
nameserver 10.99.0.1



Configuring Kerberos

In an Active Directory (AD), Kerberos is used to authenticate users, machines, and services.

During the provisioning, Samba created a Kerberos configuration file for your domain controller (DC). To use, remove your existing /etc/krb5.conf file and create a symbolic link to the pre-configured Kerberos configuration:

# rm /etc/krb5.conf
# ln -sf /usr/local/samba/private/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf

The pre-created Kerberos configuration uses DNS service (SRV) resource records to locate the Kerberos distribution center (KDC).



Testing your Samba AD DC

To start the samba service manually, enter:

# samba

Samba does not provide System V init scripts, systemd, upstart, or other services configuration files.

  • If you installed Samba using packages, use the script or service configuration file included in the package to start Samba.
  • If you built Samba, see your distribution's documentation for how to create a script or configuration to start services. For user-created example System V init scripts, see Samba AD Init Script Examples.


Verifying the File Server

To list all shares provided by the domain controller (DC):

$ smbclient -L localhost -U%
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        netlogon        Disk      
        sysvol          Disk      
        IPC$            IPC       IPC Service (Samba x.y.z)
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]

        Server               Comment
        ---------            -------

        Workgroup            Master
        ---------            -------

To verify authentication, connect to the netlogon share using the domain administrator account:

$ smbclient //localhost/netlogon -UAdministrator -c 'ls'
Enter Administrator's password: 
Domain=[SAMDOM] OS=[Unix] Server=[Samba x.y.z]
 .                                   D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016
 ..                                  D        0  Tue Nov  1 08:40:00 2016

               49386 blocks of size 524288. 42093 blocks available

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying DNS

To verify that your Active Directory (AD) DNS configuration works correctly, query some DNS records:

  • The tcp-based _ldap service (SRV) resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 389 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The udp-based _kerberos SRV resource record in the domain:
$ host -t SRV _kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com.
_kerberos._udp.samdom.example.com has SRV record 0 100 88 dc1.samdom.example.com.
  • The A record of the domain controller:
$ host -t A dc1.samdom.example.com.
dc1.samdom.example.com has address 10.99.0.1

If one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.


Verifying Kerberos

  • Request a Kerberos ticket for the domain administrator account:
$ kinit administrator
Password for administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  • List the cacheed Kerberos tickets:
$ klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
01.11.2016 08:45:00  12.11.2016 18:45:00  krbtgt/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM
	renew until 02.11.2016 08:44:59

If you one or more tests fail, see Troubleshooting.



Configuring Time Syncronisation

Kerberos requires a syncronised time on all domain members. For further details and how to set up the ntpd service, see Time Synchronisation.



Using the Domain Controller as a File Server

The Samba Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC) is able to provide file shares, such as all other installation modes. However, the Samba team does not recommend to use a DC as file server because the DC smbd process has some limitations compared with the service in non-DC setups. For example, the auto-enabled acl_xattr virtual file system (VFS) object enables you only to configure shares with Windows access control lists (ACL). Running shares with POSIX ACLs on a Samba DC is not supported. To provide network shares with the full capabilities of Samba, set up a Samba domain member with file shares. For details, see:

If you do not want to follow the Samba team's recommendation and use the DC additionally as a file server, configure libnss_winbind before you start setting up shares. For details, see libsss_winbind.



Troubleshooting

See Samba AD DC Troubleshooting.



Further Samba-related Documentation

See User Documentation.