Samba CTDB GPFS Cluster HowTo
Creating a Samba Cluster with CTDB and GPFS on CENTOS
Want to build a scalable networked storage system that is always available ?, A system that integrates with your Active Directory, supports SMB2 protocol and ACL's. Then read on...
This guide is written to assist a relatively inexperienced users through the setup of a fairly complex system in a step by step fashion. However, for the sake brevity I'm going to assume you are reasonably comfortable with GNU\Linux, can use Vim, Emacs or Nano. Have a grasp of basic networking etc.. and are not afraid of compiling some code :) . Elements of this setup are somewhat interchangeable. You could probably replace CENTOS with another distro but would subsequently need to be familiar enough with that distro to be able to modify the appropriate commands and paths. Others may wish to replace GPFS with alternate clustered file system or use a variation of my Samba configuration below. This setup has been tested in a non production environment. Deploying as such in a production environment is at your own risk and the author as such assumes no responsibility .
Preparing the Servers
This is a simple test setup. I’m going to use a couple of KVM VM’s but the same principles should apply on bare metal . This approach should scale to many physical/virtual servers . The diagram below illustrates our setup.
Install CENTOS 6.
First we want to install a couple of servers. I have chosen CENTOS 6 as it is binary compatible with RHEL 6 which is well supported by both GPFS and Samba. Create a couple of CENTOS 6 VM’s (I use virt-manager on CENTOS 6 but you can use any tools you like) . I use an ISO image CentOS-6.4-x86_64-minimal.iso. The VM will have 1 CPU and 1G RAM and an 8Gig disk . Initially I allocate 1 NIC but we will add a further NIC for a private LAN later.
Select all the usual defaults. Select the option to manually configure networking as we are going to configure this after install. Also make sure you install the SSH server. Once the servers are installed we need to set the IP address. You can do this by editing /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file and setting static IP addresses .These are the publicly accessible IP addresses of the servers. For reference here is the ifcfig-eth0 file on the sambagpfs1 server :
DEVICE=eth0 HWADDR=52:54:00:D1:C5:25 TYPE=Ethernet UUID=0b83419e-f28a-4a6d-84e5-64c813bf4f51 ONBOOT=yes NM_CONTROLLED=yes IPADDR="10.10.23.46" NETMASK="255.255.255.0" GATEWAY="10.10.23.253"
Don’t forget to set a valid DNS server in /etc/resolv.conf also. Once you're sure you have a working network connection, install the latest updates with the yum update command.
In virt-manager create a couple of 1GB IDE disks for our GPFS Cluster. When you try to add the disk to the 2nd server (sambagpfs2) virt-manager will give you a warning that “the disk is already in use by another guest” but this is OK. We are building a clustered file system where shared access to the underlying disks is necessary.
In a production scenario these disks would usually be shared LUN’s on a SAN. When you reboot your servers you should see the additional disks as reported by the dmesg command. You should see something like :
sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 2048000 512-byte logical blocks: (1.04 GB/1000 MiB) sd 0:0:1:0: [sdb] 2048000 512-byte logical blocks: (1.04 GB/1000 MiB)
Make sure you can see both disks from both servers (sambagpfs1 and sambagpfs2).
Disable SELINUX and iptables
There appears to be a communication problem between the GPFS Daemons when SELINUX is enabled. Edit the /etc/selinux/config file and set SELINUX=disabled. Also stop the iptables server and disable it on restart.
service iptables stop chkconfig iptables off
It goes without saying that you need to consider these steps more carefully in a production environment.
Create an addition network card and set up password less login
Create an additional network card in virt-manager for each of our guests. These NIC’s are for communication (GPFS and CTDB Stuff) between the guests so we place them on the Virtual network ‘default’ NAT. Give the NIC’s sensible addresses, something like 192.168.1.x .. Create a file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 for the new network interface . Sample config below :
DEVICE=eth1 TYPE=Ethernet ONBOOT=yes NM_CONTROLLED=yes IPADDR="192.168.1.11" NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
Generate the ssh key with the ssh-keygen -t rsa command on sambagpfs1 and copy to the other server using the command ssh-copy-id -i /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub 192.168.1.12 .
Also in the ~/.ssh folder run cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys . This is necessary as our GPFS setup uses the ssh shell to execute commands locally as well as remotely. Otherwise we will be prompted for a login on the local machine when executing GPFS commands .
Now, perform the inverse of the above on the second server gpfstest2. You should now be able to zip between the two servers with the ssh <IP address> command. If not use the -v switch in the ssh command to debug.
Hostnames in hosts file
Add your hostnames and internal IP addresses to the /etc/hosts file . My settings displayed below for reference.
192.168.1.11 sambagpfs1 192.168.1.12 sambagpfs2 10.10.23.48 smbgpfscluster 10.10.23.49 smbgpfscluster
Keep time synchronised
Install the ntp service :
yum install ntp
Set your local ntp server in /etc/ntp.conf . Set service to start on boot :
chkconfig ntpd on
and start the service :
service ntpd start
Check the time is synchronised using the date command.
Now we are just about ready to begin installing GPFS :) .
Install and configure GPFS
Important !. Ensure you have the appropriate licensing before installing GPFS. For more information see http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/clresctr/vxrx/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.cluster.gpfs.doc%2Fgpfs_faqs%2Fgpfsclustersfaq.html
Copy the appropriate GPFS related rpm’s onto your servers. You must install the base GPFS rpm’s and then install the patch rpm’s
Machine 1 - sambagpfs1
First of all we need to install some dependencies necessary to install GPFS and build the portability layer rpm :
yum install perl rsh ksh compat-libstdc++-33 make kernel-devel gcc gcc-c++ rpm-build
Now, install the GPFS base rpms :
rpm -ivh gpfs.*0-0*
then the patch rpm’s :
rpm -Uvh gpfs.*0-14*.rpm
Build the Portability layer :
make LINUX_DISTRIBUTION=REDHAT_AS_LINUX Autoconfig
make rpm (Note it’s not best practice to build rpm as root)
This will build an rpm for the portability layer . The benefit of building this rpm is that we will not need as many prerequisites in our other cluster members.
Install the portability rpm.
rpm -Uvh /root/rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/gpfs.gplbin-2.6.32-358.18.1.el6.x86_64-3.4.0-14.x86_64.rpm
In general it is bad practice to build as root. See http://serverfault.com/questions/10027/why-is-it-bad-to-build-rpms-as-root . As this is a non production test system i’m going to give myself a pass (for the moment).
Finally, copy the portability rpm to the other cluster servers, in this case sambagpfs2 .
Machine 2 - sambagpfs2
Install some dependencies :
yum install perl rsh ksh compat-libstdc++-33
the base rpm’s :
rpm -ivh gpfs.*0-0*
the patch rpm’s :
rpm -Uvh gpfs.*0-14*.rpm
Install the portability RPM.
rpm -Uvh gpfs.gplbin-2.6.32-358.18.1.el6.x86_64-3.4.0-14.x86_64.rpm
Update your path to include the GPFS administration commands
Add the GPFS commands to the path (you don’t strictly need to do this but it makes administration of GPFS more convenient !). Edit you .bash_profile and set the path to something like :
and run source .bash_profile to update your path
Creating the GPFS Cluster
Create a file gpfsnodes.txt containing information about our GPFS cluster nodes
Create the test cluster using the mmcrcluster command.
mmcrcluster -N gpfsnodes.txt -p sambagpfs1 -s sambagpfs2 -r /usr/bin/ssh -R /usr/bin/scp -C SAMBAGPFS -A
This sets sambagpfs1 as the primary server and sambagpfs2 as the secondary server. -A specifies that the GPFS daemons start on boot.
Accept the license for you servers :
mmchlicense server --accept -N sambagpfs1
mmchlicense server --accept -N sambagpfs2
Use the mmlscluster command to verify that the cluster has been created correctly.
Now create our NSD’s for our two shared disks /dev/sda and /dev/sdb.
Firstly create two files, nsd.txt :
Now issue the command :
mmcrnsd -F nsd.txt
mmcrnsd -F nsd2.txt
Use the mmlsnsd command to verify creation.
Start up the cluster :
Check the cluster is up with mmgetstate -a
Create the GPFS file system :
mmcrfs /dev/sambagpfs -F nsd.txt -A yes -B 256K -n 2 -M 2 -r1 -R2 -T /sambagpfs
Add the second disk to the filesystem :
mmadddisk sambagpfs -F nsd2.txt
Use the mmlsnsd to verify that the two disk have been added to the cluster file system . You should see something similar to the following :
File system Disk name NSD servers --------------------------------------------------------------------------- sambagpfs test01 sambagpfs1,sambagpfs2 sambagpfs test02 sambagpfs2,sambagpfs1
We only have 2 nods in our GPFS Cluster so we need to set a tie breaker disk . Shut down GPFS to add the tie breaker disk.
To ensure recent versions of Microsoft Excel work correctly over SMB2 we also need to set the following configuration in GPFS (Many thanks to Dan Cohen at IBM - XIV for this tip).
mmchconfig cifsBypassShareLocksOnRename=yes -i
Start up our GPFS Cluster again :
Mount the GPFS filesystem :
mmmount sambagpfs -a
At this point you should see the GPFS file system mounted at /sambagpfs on both of our servers. Congratulations !. Take a break, stand up and walk around for a bit.
Install and Configure Samba and CTDB
I use the Sernet Samba 4 RPM’s from http://enterprisesamba.com/ . You have to register at the site (free) to download the RPM’s. There appears to be a problem with Windows 7 (which uses SMB2 if available on the server) on the latest release 4.0.10 so I am currently using the 4.0.9 release . I have yet to test with 4.1. Once you register you can find the 4.0.9 rpm’s at https://download.sernet.de/packages/samba/old/4.0/rpm/4.0.9-5/centos/6/x86_64/
You need to download the following rpm’s :
sernet-samba-libwbclient0-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64 sernet-samba-libsmbclient0-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64 sernet-samba-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64 sernet-samba-common-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64 sernet-samba-libs-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64 sernet-samba-client-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64 sernet-samba-winbind-4.0.9-5.el6.x86_64
First we need to install a couple of dependencies :
yum install redhat-lsb-core cups-libs
Then install the samba packages :
rpm -Uvh sernet-samba-*
We want to control samba from CTDB so stop the samba daemons from starting on boot on our servers :
chkconfig sernet-samba-nmbd off chkconfig sernet-samba-smbd off chkconfig sernet-samba-smbd off
Install and configure CTDB
Download the latest CTDB sources (2.4 at time of writing) onto the sambagpfs1 server from ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ctdb/ctdb-2.4.tar.gz . Extract the tar.gz to the gpfs file system /sambagpfs and on the sambagpfs1 server run
yum install autoconf
Now run make install on the sambagpfs2 also.
Create /etc/sysconfig/ctdb with the following contents
CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK=/sambagpfs/recovery.lck CTDB_PUBLIC_INTERFACE=eth0 CTDB_PUBLIC_ADDRESSES=/usr/local/etc/ctdb/public_addresses CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA=yes CTDB_MANAGES_WINBIND=yes CTDB_NODES=/usr/local/etc/ctdb/nodes CTDB_SERVICE_WINBIND=sernet-samba-winbindd CTDB_SERVICE_SMB=sernet-samba-smbd CTDB_SERVICE_NMB=sernet-samba-nmbd
Next create the directory /usr/local/var
Then change directory to /usr/local/etc/ctdb/ and create the following files containing the following data
10.10.23.48/24 eth0 10.10.23.49/24 eth0
Also create a shared recovery file :
Edit the /etc/default/sernet-samba file and set the following parameter :
Now we need to create our smb.conf in /etc/samba. I have copied the contents of my smb.conf file below for reference :
#===== Global Settings ============ [global] netbios name = smbgpfscluster server string = Samba Version %v on $h workgroup = HOHO security = ADS realm = HOHO.BALE.COM # These were useful for debugging my initial setup but are probably too verbose for general use log level = 3 passdb:3 auth:3 winbind:10 idmap:10 idmap config *:backend = tdb2 idmap config *:range = 1000-90000 winbind use default domain = yes # Set these to no as it doesn't work well when you have thousands of users in your domain winbind enum users = no winbind enum groups = no winbind cache time = 900 winbind normalize names = no clustering = yes unix extensions = no mangled names = no ea support = yes store dos attributes = yes map readonly = no map archive = no map system = no force unknown acl user = yes # Stuff necessary for guest logins to work where required guest account = nobody map to guest = bad user #============ Share Definitions ============ [gpfstest] comment = GPFS Cluster on %h using %R protocol path = /sambagpfs writeable = yes create mask = 0770 force create mode = 0770 locking = yes vfs objects = gpfs fileid # vfs_gpfs settings gpfs:sharemodes = yes gpfs:winattr = yes nfs4:mode = special nfs4:chown = yes nfs4:acedup = merge #some vfs related to clustering fileid:algorithm = fsname
Notes on Samba config
This is a configuration for a AD domain member server. I did not have the necessary privileges on our AD to install RFC2307/SFU schema extensions . If you have such access then this would be a better way to proceed as you would have consistent UID/GID allocation between clusters.
passwd: files winbind shadow: files group: files winbind
In /etc/krb5.conf file set your default realm
default_realm = HOHO.BALE.COM
Now start the CTDB daemon on both servers.
ctdbd --syslog --debug=3
run ctdb status
At this stage the nodes will report as unhealthy as winbind will not start as we have not joined the domain. So lets join the domain.
net ads join -U <some account with the necessary privileges> -d5
All going well you have successfully joined the domain if not the debug information will assist you in finding the issue.
winbind will not have started successfully when we first started CTDB so we can start it manually now.
service sernet-samba-winbindd start
Check the winbind daemon has started :
and verify you have successfully joined the domain :
and can authenticate a user against the domain :
wbinfo -a <avaliddomainusername>
In addition the following command should return valid user information.
The wbinfo -u command should list the users on your domain . Our domain has 10’s of thousands of users so this may take some time. You may even have to to run run wbinfo a couple of times to get valid results.
The ctdb ip command should report the current assignment of our cluster ip’s .
Now try to access the shares from windows. For some reason that I could not fathom I was getting an access denied when I tried to access that shares at this point. I rebooted both servers and this appeared to resolve the issue :).
Setting Some ACL’s
You may or may not need ACL's depending on you enviornment.
You can use the mmputacl command to set ACL;s on the share . Create a text file perms.txt
#owner:root #group:root user::rwxc group::rwx- other::rwx- mask::rwxc user:root:rwx- user:joebloggs:rwx- group:root:rwx- group:infosystems:rwx-
To apply these permissions :
mmputacl -i ~/perms.txt -i sambagpfs
or set the default permissions on a folder :
mmputacl -d -i ~/perms.txt /sambagpfs/folder
To test you permissions create a file in on the share from a windows machine. Now check the permissions of the file using mmgetacl newfile.txt command on the server.
Configure your DNS Server
You need to create a DNS alias that redirects requests to your samba cluster in a round robin fashion. So in our setup we need to create an alias the resolves to both 10.10.23.48 and 10.10.23.49 .
So there you have it. I hope this guide has been useful. Any constructive feedback is welcome to improve the guide, particulatly from anybody who is running such a system in a production enviornment.
For a complete open source solution you could replace GPFS for GlusterFS (which appears to be maturing nicely) or possibly OCFS2. Perhaps i will have time to test this some day but thats another days work.