Difference between revisions of "DNS Administration"

(Fix information, that new zones are directly live. Internal DNS requires a restart of Samba for that currently (Bug))
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If you're running Samba as Active Directory Domain Controller, you also have to administer a DNS server.
 
If you're running Samba as Active Directory Domain Controller, you also have to administer a DNS server.
  
You will already find general [[DNS|information on the internal DNS and the BIND DLZ module]] and documentation about [[Dns-backend_bind|Bind as DNS Backend]] in the Wiki.
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You will already find general [[The_Samba_AD_DNS_Back_Ends|information on the internal DNS and the BIND DLZ module]] and documentation about [[BIND9_DLZ_DNS_Back_End|Bind as DNS Backend]] in the Wiki.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
  
 
= General =
 
= General =
  
Per default, Samba creates the following two forward zones during provisioning/upgrading (of course with your own domain name):
+
By default, Samba creates the following two forward zones during provisioning/upgrading (of course with your own domain name):
  
 
* '''samdom.example.com''': Zone for your domain.
 
* '''samdom.example.com''': Zone for your domain.
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= Features =
 
= Features =
  
The Samba internal DNS is a new implementation. Although BIND is a grown up DNS and long in production on millions of servers, the Samba BIND DLZ module is still new. That's why both backends don't cover all features yet, you can setup with the Microsoft DNS tools. If you discover problems or missing features, please open a bug report/feature request at [https://bugzilla.samba.org/ https://bugzilla.samba.org/].
+
The Samba internal DNS is a new implementation. Although BIND is a grown up DNS and long in production on millions of servers, the Samba BIND DLZ module is still new. That's why both backends don't yet cover all the features that you can setup with the Microsoft DNS tools. If you discover problems or missing features, please open a bug report/feature request at [https://bugzilla.samba.org/ https://bugzilla.samba.org/].
  
But even if the internal DNS and the BIND DLZ modules are new, they both support all basic requirements for Active Directory and more.
+
Even though the internal DNS and the BIND DLZ modules are new, they both support all basic requirements for Active Directory and more.
  
  
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* Different zone transfer settings on internal DNS (denied) and BIND DLZ (allowed). [https://bugzilla.samba.org/show_bug.cgi?id=9634 Bug report #9634: Samba Bind DLZ module allows zone transfers for everyone]
 
* Different zone transfer settings on internal DNS (denied) and BIND DLZ (allowed). [https://bugzilla.samba.org/show_bug.cgi?id=9634 Bug report #9634: Samba Bind DLZ module allows zone transfers for everyone]
 +
 +
 +
 +
  
 
= Importance of DNS for Active Directory =
 
= Importance of DNS for Active Directory =
  
A working Active Directory is heavily based on a working DNS. It's not just for resolving IP addresses into names and vice versa. Clients find their Domain Controller/s and other important AD services by DNS queries.
+
A working Active Directory is heavily based on a working DNS. It's not just for resolving IP addresses into names and vice versa. Clients find their Domain Controller/s and other important AD services by DNS queries, this means that your clients must use your Domain Controller/s as their nameservers. Do not use anything else between your clients and Domain Controller/s.
 +
 
  
  
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= Administering DNS on Windows =
 
= Administering DNS on Windows =
  
To administer DNS from a Windows client, you have to install the DNS MMC Snap-In. See [[Samba_AD_management_from_windows|Samba AD Management from Windows]] for more details.
+
To administer DNS from a Windows client, you have to install the DNS MMC Snap-In. See [[Installing RSAT|Installing RSAT on Windows for AD Management]] for more details.
 +
 
 +
If you use the internal DNS server, there are the following known problems:
 +
 
 +
* Scavenging is not implemented yet. The error message "This function is not supported on this system" is returned.
 +
* Conditional forwarders are not implemented yet. The same error message as above is returned.
 +
* The DNS forwarder can only be changed in the smb.conf, not via the MMC Snap-In.
 +
* Creating static records. When a static record is created it has a timestamp and the option "Delete this record when it becomes stale". In Windows Active Directory, static records have a "static" timestamp and cannot be accidently deleted.
 +
 
  
  
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* Choose „Properties“.
 
* Choose „Properties“.
  
'''Note''': Currently both DNS backends doesn't support all features, that can be setup in the dialogues. If you discover problems or missing features, please open a bug report/feature request at [https://bugzilla.samba.org/ https://bugzilla.samba.org/].
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'''Note''': Currently both DNS backends don't support all features that can be setup in the dialogues. If you discover problems or missing features, please open a bug report/feature request at [https://bugzilla.samba.org/ https://bugzilla.samba.org/].
  
  
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: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_1.png]]
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_1.png]]
  
* Zone Replication Scope: Depents on your needs.
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* Zone Replication Scope: Depends on your needs.
  
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_2.png]]
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_2.png]]
  
* Reverse Lookup Zone Name: Depents on your needs.
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* Reverse Lookup Zone Name: Depends on your needs.
  
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_3.png]]
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_3.png]]
  
: Dynamic Update: Depents on your needs.
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: Dynamic Update: Depends on your needs.
  
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_4.png]]
 
: [[Image:DNS_Add_Zone_Wizzard_4.png]]
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* Finish the wizard.
 
* Finish the wizard.
  
If you are using BIND_DLZ as backend, then your new zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
+
Your new zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
  
The internal DNS as backend currently needs a restart of Samba to take effect. See [https://bugzilla.samba.org/show_bug.cgi?id=9404 bug report #9404].
 
  
  
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* Example: Adding an A record
 
* Example: Adding an A record
  
  # samba-tool dns add <Your-Server> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55
+
  # samba-tool dns add <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Record added successfully
 
  Record added successfully
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* Example: Adding a PTR record to a reverse zone
 
* Example: Adding a PTR record to a reverse zone
  
  # samba-tool dns add <Your-Server> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa 55 PTR demo.samdom.example.com
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  # samba-tool dns add <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa 55 PTR demo.samdom.example.com
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Record added successfully
 
  Record added successfully
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* Example: Adding a SRV record to _tcp.samdom.example.com
 
* Example: Adding a SRV record to _tcp.samdom.example.com
  
  # samba-tool dns add <Your-Server> samdom.example.com _demo._tcp SRV 'demo.samdom.example.com 8080 0 100'
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  # samba-tool dns add <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com _demo._tcp SRV 'demo.samdom.example.com 8080 0 100'
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Record added successfully
 
  Record added successfully
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* Example: Changing an A record
 
* Example: Changing an A record
  
  # samba-tool dns update <Your-Server> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55 10.99.0.66
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  # samba-tool dns update <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55 10.99.0.66
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Record updated succefully
 
  Record updated succefully
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* Example: Deleting an A record
 
* Example: Deleting an A record
  # samba-tool dns delete <Your-Server> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55
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  # samba-tool dns delete <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Record deleted succefully
 
  Record deleted succefully
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As example we'll add a reverse lookup zone.
 
As example we'll add a reverse lookup zone.
  
  # samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-Server> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
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  # samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
 
  Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully
  
If you are using BIND_DLZ as backend, then your new zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
+
Your new zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.
  
The internal DNS as backend currently needs a restart of Samba to take effect. See [https://bugzilla.samba.org/show_bug.cgi?id=9404 bug report #9404].
 
  
  
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* Example: Deleting a reverse zone:
 
* Example: Deleting a reverse zone:
  
  # samba-tool dns zonedelete <Your-Server> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
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  # samba-tool dns zonedelete <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
 
  Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa delete successfully
 
  Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa delete successfully
  
= Configuring clients to use your AD DNS server =
 
  
If you provide DNS server addresses via DHCP to your clients, configure your DHCP server to ship the adress/es of your DNS server/s.
 
  
For static configuration on the different Windows versions, continue reading.
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== Listing existing zones ==
  
 +
* Example: listing secondary zones
 +
# samba-tool dns zonelist <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> --secondary -U administrator
  
  
== Windows 8 ==
 
  
* Press [Win]+[W] and search for „Network and Sharing Center“ in Settings and open the app.
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== Listing zone information ==
  
: [[Image:Win8_Network_App.png]]
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* Example: showing information about a zone
 +
# samba-tool dns zoneinfo <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> <zone-name> -U administrator
  
* Click „Change adapter settings“.
 
  
* Right-click to your network adapter and choose „Properties“.
 
  
: [[Image:Win8_Network_and_Sharing_Center.png]]
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== Listing zone records ==
  
* Click to your Internet Protocol (IPv4/IPv6) and click the „Properties“ button.
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* Example: listing records from a zone
 +
# samba-tool dns query <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> <zone-name> @ ALL -U administrator
  
* Enter the IP address/es of your DNS server/s.
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= Configuring clients to use your AD DNS server =
 
 
: [[Image:Win8_DNS_Server_Addresses.png]]
 
  
* Save the settings by clicking „OK“.
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* [[Windows_DNS_Configuration|Windows]]
 
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* [[Linux_and_Unix_DNS_Configuration|Linux/Unix]]
 
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* [[MacOSX_DNS_Configuration|MacOSX]]
 
 
== Windows 7 ==
 
 
 
* Click to „Start“ and search for „Network and Sharing Center“.
 
 
 
* Click „Change adapter settings“.
 
 
 
* Right-click to your network adapter and choose „Properties“.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Win7_Network_and_Sharing_Center.png]]
 
 
 
* Click to your Internet Protocol (IPv4/IPv6) and click the „Properties“ button.
 
 
 
* Enter the IP address/es of your DNS server/s.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Win7_DNS_Server_Addresses.png]]
 
 
 
* Save the settings by clicking „OK“.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
== Windows XP ==
 
 
 
* Right-click to „My Network Places“ and choose „Properties“.
 
 
 
* Right-click to your network connection and choose „Properties“.
 
 
 
: [[Image:WinXP_My_Network_Places.png]]
 
 
 
* Click to your Internet Protocol and click the „Properties“ button.
 
 
 
* Enter the IP address/es of your DNS server/s.
 
 
 
: [[Image:WinXP_DNS_Server_Addresses.png]]
 
 
 
* Save the settings by clicking „OK“.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
== Linux/Unix ==
 
 
 
Edit your /etc/resolv.conf and add a „nameserver“ entry for each DNS server and your search domain:
 
nameserver 10.99.0.1
 
nameserver 10.99.0.2
 
search samdom.example.com
 
  
  
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= Testing your DNS Server =
 
= Testing your DNS Server =
  
On Windows and *nix, you can use „nslookup“ to test if your computer can resolve records by using your DNS. Try resolving the name of your Domain Controller into its IP:
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See [[Testing_the_DNS_Name_Resolution|Testing the DNS Name Resolution]].
 
 
# nslookup DC1.samdom.example.com
 
Server:        10.99.0.1
 
Address:        10.99.0.1#53
 
 
Name:  DC1.samdom.example.com
 
Address: 10.99.0.1
 
 
 
Nslookup will show you, which server was asked (10.99.0.1) and the result of your query (DC1.samdom.example.com has IP 10.99.0.1)
 
 
 
To query a SVR record, you have to start nslookup and set the type to „SRV“, to retrieve the values (works on Windows and *nix):
 
  
# nslookup
 
Default Server:  UnKnown
 
Address:  10.99.0.1
 
 
> set type=SRV
 
> _ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com.
 
Server:  UnKnown
 
Address:  10.99.0.1
 
 
_ldap._tcp.samdom.example.com  SRV service location:
 
          priority      = 0
 
          weight        = 100
 
          port          = 389
 
          svr hostname  = dc1.samdom.example.com
 
samdom.example.com      nameserver = dc1.samdom.example.com
 
dc1.samdom.example.com  internet address = 10.99.0.1
 
  
If your query can't be answered, because it doesn't exist, you'll receive
 
  
** server can't find DC9.samdom.example.com: NXDOMAIN
 
  
If you query a none existing DNS server, it would result in
 
  
;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached
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----
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]
 +
[[Category:DNS]]

Revision as of 15:42, 17 August 2018

Introduction

If you're running Samba as Active Directory Domain Controller, you also have to administer a DNS server.

You will already find general information on the internal DNS and the BIND DLZ module and documentation about Bind as DNS Backend in the Wiki.



General

By default, Samba creates the following two forward zones during provisioning/upgrading (of course with your own domain name):

  • samdom.example.com: Zone for your domain.
  • _msdcs.samdom.example.com: This is the ForestDNSZone, that contains several service records for the entire directory.



Features

The Samba internal DNS is a new implementation. Although BIND is a grown up DNS and long in production on millions of servers, the Samba BIND DLZ module is still new. That's why both backends don't yet cover all the features that you can setup with the Microsoft DNS tools. If you discover problems or missing features, please open a bug report/feature request at https://bugzilla.samba.org/.

Even though the internal DNS and the BIND DLZ modules are new, they both support all basic requirements for Active Directory and more.


Known/issues missing features



Importance of DNS for Active Directory

A working Active Directory is heavily based on a working DNS. It's not just for resolving IP addresses into names and vice versa. Clients find their Domain Controller/s and other important AD services by DNS queries, this means that your clients must use your Domain Controller/s as their nameservers. Do not use anything else between your clients and Domain Controller/s.



Administering DNS on Windows

To administer DNS from a Windows client, you have to install the DNS MMC Snap-In. See Installing RSAT on Windows for AD Management for more details.

If you use the internal DNS server, there are the following known problems:

  • Scavenging is not implemented yet. The error message "This function is not supported on this system" is returned.
  • Conditional forwarders are not implemented yet. The same error message as above is returned.
  • The DNS forwarder can only be changed in the smb.conf, not via the MMC Snap-In.
  • Creating static records. When a static record is created it has a timestamp and the option "Delete this record when it becomes stale". In Windows Active Directory, static records have a "static" timestamp and cannot be accidently deleted.



Adding new records

  • Navigate to the zone, where you want to to add a new record.
  • Right-click to it and choose the kind of record to add.
DNS Manager Add records.png
  • Fill the fields and save the new entry.


Updating existing records

  • Navigate to the zone that contains the record you want to edit.
  • Right-click the record and choose „Properties“.
DNS Manager Change record.png
  • Edit the entry and save the changes.


Delete a record

  • Navigate to the zone that contains the record you want to remove.
  • Right-click to the record and choose „Delete“.


Changing zone properties

  • Right-click to a zone of which you you want to do changes.
  • Choose „Properties“.

Note: Currently both DNS backends don't support all features that can be setup in the dialogues. If you discover problems or missing features, please open a bug report/feature request at https://bugzilla.samba.org/.


Creating a new zone

As example we'll add a reverse lookup zone.

  • Right-click to „Reverse Lookup Zones“ and choose „New Zone“.
  • The „New Zone Wizard“ appears.
  • Zone Type: Select „Primary zone“ and „Store the zone in Active Directory“.
DNS Add Zone Wizzard 1.png
  • Zone Replication Scope: Depends on your needs.
DNS Add Zone Wizzard 2.png
  • Reverse Lookup Zone Name: Depends on your needs.
DNS Add Zone Wizzard 3.png
Dynamic Update: Depends on your needs.
DNS Add Zone Wizzard 4.png
  • Finish the wizard.

Your new zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Deleting a zone

  • Right-click to a zone and choose „Delete“.
DNS Delete Zone.png

Administering DNS on Linux/Unix

Adding new records

  • Example: Adding an A record
# samba-tool dns add <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Record added successfully
  • Example: Adding a PTR record to a reverse zone
# samba-tool dns add <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa 55 PTR demo.samdom.example.com
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Record added successfully
  • Example: Adding a SRV record to _tcp.samdom.example.com
# samba-tool dns add <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com _demo._tcp SRV 'demo.samdom.example.com 8080 0 100'
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Record added successfully
A note on SRV records: The order of the four parameters in the last field („data“) are 'hostname port priority weight' and have to be between ' '.


Updating existing records

  • Example: Changing an A record
# samba-tool dns update <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55 10.99.0.66
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Record updated succefully


Delete a record

  • Example: Deleting an A record
# samba-tool dns delete <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> samdom.example.com demo A 10.99.0.55
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Record deleted succefully


Creating a new zone

As example we'll add a reverse lookup zone.

# samba-tool dns zonecreate <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa created successfully

Your new zone is directly live without restarting Samba or BIND.



Deleting a zone

  • Example: Deleting a reverse zone:
# samba-tool dns zonedelete <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa
Password for [administrator@SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM]:
Zone 0.99.10.in-addr.arpa delete successfully


Listing existing zones

  • Example: listing secondary zones
# samba-tool dns zonelist <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> --secondary -U administrator


Listing zone information

  • Example: showing information about a zone
# samba-tool dns zoneinfo <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> <zone-name> -U administrator


Listing zone records

  • Example: listing records from a zone
# samba-tool dns query <Your-AD-DNS-Server-IP-or-hostname> <zone-name> @ ALL -U administrator

Configuring clients to use your AD DNS server



Testing your DNS Server

See Testing the DNS Name Resolution.