Difference between revisions of "BIND9 DLZ DNS Back End"

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= Introduction =
 
= Introduction =
  
This HowTo describes how to compile and configure a basic Bind installation, that can be used as Samba DC DNS backend.
+
Samba provides support for using the BIND DNS server as the DNS back end on a Samba Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). The <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> back end is recommended for complex DNS setups that the Samba internal DNS server does not support.
  
Bind as DNS backend is recommended, if you plan setup a complexer DNS setup, than the Samba 4 internal DNS currently made possible.
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = This documentation only supports BIND versions that are actively maintained by ISC. For details about the ISC BIND life cycle, see https://www.isc.org/downloads/software-support-policy/
 +
}}
  
 +
The <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module is a BIND9 plugin that accesses the Samba Active Directory (AD) database directly for registered zones. For this reason:
 +
* BIND must be installed on the same machine as the Samba AD domain controller (DC).
 +
* BIND must not run in a changed root environment.
 +
* zones are stored and replicated within the directory.
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = If you are using the internal DNS server and wish to use Bind9 instead, see [[Changing_the_DNS_Back_End_of_a_Samba_AD_DC|Changing the DNS Back End of a Samba AD DC]].
 +
}}
  
  
= Setting up a basic Bind installation =
 
  
Skip this section if you already having an existing Bind installation; that can be used as a Samba AD backend.
 
  
  
 +
= Software Architecture =
  
== Installing Bind ==
+
Bind9 operates a threading model with the 'worker threads' concept.  Each plugin has an associated mutex, so no two worker threads can call API functions provided by our plugin at once.  Database access by the plugin is guarded by a fcntl lock.
  
Bind as backend for your Samba Active Directory Domain Controller is currently supported in version 9.8 and 9.9 only. Users of bind 9.7 are strongly encouraged to upgrade! If this is not possible, refer to the section [[#Bind_9.7_2|DNS dynamic updates via Kerberos for Bind 9.7]] for instructions on configuring Bind 9.7.
 
  
If you install Bind from the repositories of your distribution, you can skip the following two steps. But make sure that your vendor compiled Bind with the '--with-gssapi' and '--with-dlopen' options (see below) before using it as Samba AD DNS backend.
 
  
  
=== Downloading ===
 
  
Download your desired and Samba 4 supported version from [https://www.isc.org/software/bind https://www.isc.org/software/bind].
+
= Recommended Architecture =
  
 +
For high traffic environments, it is not recommended to use BIND9_DLZ-backed samba as a primary DNS server.  Instead, use an external server that only forwards queries to BIND9_DLZ-backed samba DNS installations when the query is addressed to a zone managed by that node.
  
=== Compiling Bind ===
 
  
To use Bind 9.8.1 or later as Samba AD backend, at least the following two configure options are required:
 
  
# ./configure --with-gssapi=/usr/include/gssapi --with-dlopen=yes
 
  
Please check if there are other options you require for your environment. For building Bind 9.8.0, you must use '--with-dlz-dlopen=yes' instead of '--with-dlopen=yes'.
 
  
To build and install:
+
= Setting up BIND =
  
# make
+
For details, see [[Setting_up_a_BIND_DNS_Server|Setting up a BIND DNS Server]].
# make install
 
  
  
  
== Configuration ==
 
  
=== Setting up a basic named.conf ===
 
  
The following example is a basic 'named.conf' for a pure minimal Bind installation without any Samba AD parts. We will add the Samba required parameters later.
+
= Configuring the BIND9_DLZ Module =
 
 
# Global options
 
options {
 
 
        auth-nxdomain yes;
 
 
        directory "/var/named";
 
 
        forwarders { 8.8.8.8; 8.8.4.4; };
 
 
        allow-transfer { none; };
 
        notify no;
 
 
        empty-zones-enable no;
 
 
        allow-query {
 
                10.1.1.0/24;
 
                ...other networks you want to allow to query your DNS...;
 
        };
 
 
        allow-recursion {
 
                10.1.1.0/24;
 
                ...other networks you want to allow to do recursive queries...;
 
        };
 
 
};
 
 
 
# Root servers (required zone for recursive queries)
 
zone "." {
 
        type hint;
 
        file "named.root";
 
};
 
 
 
# Required localhost forward-/reverse zones
 
  zone "localhost" {
 
        type master;
 
        file "master/localhost.zone";
 
};
 
 
zone "0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" {
 
        type master;
 
        file "master/0.0.127.zone";
 
};
 
 
 
We chose '/var/named' as directory in 'named.conf' to be the place where our zonefiles, etc. reside. If you want to place them on a different location, please regard this in all further instructions.
 
 
 
For more details on the parameters used in the sample 'named.conf', see 'man 5 named.conf'.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
=== Adding a user and group for Bind ===
 
 
 
If you don't want to run bind as root (and I'm sure you don't want that!), we add an account and group (adapt the UID/GID if required):
 
 
 
# groupadd -g 25 named
 
# useradd -g named -u 25 -d /var/named -M -s /sbin/nologin named
 
  
 +
During the domain provisioning, join, or classic upgrade, the <code>/usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf</code> file has been created.
  
 +
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = For Samba v4.7 and earlier, the <code>named.conf</code> filepath is slightly different: <code>/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf</code>. If you're using an older version of Samba, take care to use the correct filepath in the instructions that follow.
 +
}}
  
=== Getting the root name server list ===
+
To enable the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module for your BIND version:
  
Download the root name server list from InterNIC:
+
* Add the following <code>include</code> statement to your BIND <code>named.conf</code> file:
  
  # wget -q -O /var/named/named.root http://www.internic.net/zones/named.root
+
  include "/usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf";
# chown named:named /var/named/named.root
 
  
To have always the current file, you can add a cronjob to automatically download.
+
* Display the BIND version:
  
 +
# named -v
 +
BIND 9.9.4
  
 +
* Edit the <code>/usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf</code> file and uncomment the module for your BIND version. For example:
  
=== Creating the localhost zone file ===
+
dlz "AD DNS Zone" {
 
+
    # For BIND 9.8
Create a forward zone file ('/var/named/master/localhost.zone') for your 'localhost' zone:
+
    # database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9.so";
 
 
$TTL 3D
 
 
   
 
   
$ORIGIN localhost.
+
    # For BIND 9.9
 +
    database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9_9.so";
 
   
 
   
@      1D     IN    SOA    @      root (
+
     # For BIND 9.10
                        2013050101     ; serial
+
     # database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9_10.so";
                        8H              ; refresh
+
   
                        2H              ; retry
+
    # For BIND 9.11
                        4W              ; expiry
+
    # database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9_11.so";
                        1D              ; minimum
+
};
                        )
 
 
@      IN      NS      @
 
        IN      A      127.0.0.1
 
  
 +
:The following table shows the supported BIND versions and from which version of Samba the support started:
  
 +
:{| class="wikitable"
 +
!BIND Version
 +
!Supported in Samba Version
 +
|-
 +
|BIND 9.11
 +
|Samba 4.5.2 and later
 +
|-
 +
|BIND 9.10
 +
|Samba 4.2 and later
 +
|-
 +
|BIND 9.9
 +
|Samba 4.0 and later
 +
|-
 +
|BIND 9.8
 +
|Samba 4.0 and later
 +
|}
  
=== Creating the 0.0.127.in-addr.arpa zone file ===
 
  
Create a reverse zone file ('/var/named/master/0.0.127.zone') for your '0.0.127.in-addr.arpa' zone:
 
  
$TTL 3D
 
 
@      IN      SOA    localhost. root.localhost. (
 
                        2013050101      ; Serial
 
                        8H              ; Refresh
 
                        2H              ; Retry
 
                        4W              ; Expire
 
                        1D              ; Minimum TTL
 
                        )
 
 
        IN      NS      localhost.
 
 
1      IN      PTR    localhost.
 
  
  
 +
= Setting up BIND9 options and keytab for Kerberos =
  
=== Set permissions on the zone files ===
+
Samba needs to have some options set to allow Kerberos clients to automatically update the Active Directory (AD) zone managed by the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> back end and improve performance.
  
# chown named:named /var/named/master/*.zone
+
{{Imbox
# chmod 640 /var/named/master/*.zone
+
| type = note
 +
| text = Dynamic DNS updates require minimum BIND version 9.8.
 +
}}
  
 +
To enable dynamic DNS updates using Kerberos and avoid returning NS records in all responses:
  
 +
* Add the following to the <code>options {}</code> section of your BIND <code>named.conf</code> file. For example:
  
 +
options {
 +
      [...]
 +
      tkey-gssapi-keytab "/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab";
 +
      minimal-responses yes;
 +
};
  
 +
* If you provisioned or joined an AD forest or run the classic upgrade using a Samba version prior to 4.4.0, the BIND Kerberos key tab file was generated using wrong permissions. To fix, enable read access for the BIND user:
  
== Starting Bind ==
+
# chmod 640 /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
+
  # chown root:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
  # named -u named
 
 
 
If the configuration is valid, you should see no errors on the console and in the system logfile.
 
 
 
To have Bind automatically started at boot time, it's recommended, to create a init.d script or start it by systemd.
 
  
 +
* If you upgrade from a version earlier than 4.8.0, you should check the permissions on the <code>/usr/local/samba/bind-dns</code> directory, these should be:
 +
# chmod 770 /usr/local/samba/bind-dns
 +
# chown root:named /usr/local/samba/bind-dns
  
 +
:{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = If you are installing installing Samba using packages, validate that the BIND user is able to read the <code>dns.keytab</code> file. Some package installations set to restrictive permissions on higher folders.
 +
}}
  
 +
* Verify that your <code>/etc/krb5.conf</code> Kerberos client configuration file is readable by your BIND user. For example:
  
 +
# ls -l /etc/krb5.conf
 +
-rw-r--r--. 1 root named 99  2. Sep 2014  /etc/krb5.conf
  
== Testing your zone ==
+
* Verify that the <code>nsupdate</code> utility exists on your domain controller (DC):
  
Now we try to lookup our zone entries. We tell the 'host' command, to use the resolver on 127.0.0.1, so that we don't query an foreign DNS server, that is maybe also configured in '/etc/resolv.conf'.
+
# which nsupdate
 +
/usr/bin/nsupdate
  
First check the forward lookup for 'localhost':
+
:The <code>nsupdate</code> command is used to update the DNS. If the utility is missing, see you distribution's documentation how to identify the package containing the command and how to install.
# host localhost. 127.0.0.1
 
Using domain server:
 
Name: 127.0.0.1
 
Address: 127.0.0.1#53
 
Aliases:
 
 
localhost has address 127.0.0.1
 
  
And then the reverse lookup for '127.0.0.1':
 
# host 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1
 
Using domain server:
 
Name: 127.0.0.1
 
Address: 127.0.0.1#53
 
Aliases:
 
 
1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer localhost.
 
  
  
  
  
 +
= AppArmor and SELinux Integration =
  
= Configuring Bind as Samba Active Directory backend =
+
For details, see [[BIND9_DLZ_AppArmor_and_SELinux_Integration|BIND9_DLZ AppArmor and SELinux Integration]].
  
* Note: Bind must be installed on the same machine as samba.
 
  
  
  
== Bind 9.8 / 9.9 ==
 
  
During provisioning/upgrading, a file ('/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf') was created, that must be included in your Bind named.conf:
+
= Starting the BIND Service =
  
include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf";
+
* Before you start the service, verify the BIND configuration:
  
If you had provisioned with the internal DNS, there are some few steps required first to [[DNS#Changing_from_Internal_DNS_to_BIND|switch to Bind]].
+
# named-checkconf
  
Depending on the Bind version you are running, you should edit '/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf' and enable the right version of the DLZ module.
+
: If no output is shown, the BIND configuration is valid.
  
Restart Bind to have the included file being used. Check the logfiles for errors and problems. If available, you can 'run named-checkconf' to help you fix any problems with your Bind configuration.
+
* Start the BIND service.
  
  
  
== Bind 9.7==
 
  
Users of bind 9.7 are strongly encouraged to upgrade! If this is not possible, refer to the section [[#Bind_9.7_2|DNS dynamic updates via Kerberos for Bind 9.7]] for instructions on configuring Bind 9.7.
 
  
 +
= Testing Dynamic DNS Updates =
  
 +
For details, see [[Testing_Dynamic_DNS_Updates|Testing Dynamic DNS Updates]].
  
== DNS dynamic updates via Kerberos (optional, but recommended) ==
 
  
Samba has the capability to automatically update the Bind zone files via Kerberos.
 
  
To setup dynamic DNS updates you need to have a recent version of Bind installed. It is highly recommended that you run at least version 9.8.0, as that version includes a set of patches from the Samba Team to make dynamic DNS updates much more robust and easier to configure. Please use 9.8 or 9.9 if possible!
 
  
To find out what version of Bind you are running, use
 
  
# named -V
+
= The Lockup Problem =
  
If your operating system does not have Bind 9.8 or 9.9, please consider getting it from a package provided by a 3rd party (for example, on Ubuntu there is a ppa available with the newer versions of bind) or [[#Installing_Bind|compile it by yourself]].
+
When a BIND thread calls one of the BIND9_DLZ plugin API calls, execution can be blocked on database access calls if locks are out on the database at the time.  Unfortunately, during that time, BIND will not be able to serve any queries, even external (non-samba) queries.  Bind has a "-n" option that can increase the number of worker threads but testing has shown that increasing this number does not fix the problem, indicating that BIND's threading and queueing models are probably a bit broken.
 +
In small-scale environments this problem is unlikely to come up, but, in high-traffic environments, it may cause DNS outage.  The only solution right now is to use an external DNS server that only forwards queries to BIND9_DLZ-backed samba DNS installations when the query is addressed to a zone managed by that node.
  
  
  
=== Bind 9.8 / 9.9 ===
 
  
A DNS keytab file was automatically created during provisioning/updating. Add the following' tkey-gssapi-keytab' option to the 'options' section of your named.conf:
 
  
options {
+
= Troubleshooting =
      [...]
 
      tkey-gssapi-keytab "/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab";
 
      [...]
 
};
 
  
 +
== Reconfiguring the BIND9_DLZ Back End ==
  
 +
Running the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> back end setup automatically fixes several problems, such as recreating the Active Directory (AD) BIND DNS account (<code>dns-*</code>) and BIND Kerberos keytab file problems.
  
=== Bind 9.7 ===
+
To fix the problem:
  
If you have Bind 9.7.x (specifically 9.7.2 or later), then first determine if you can at all possibly run 9.8 or 9.9. You will have far fewer problems! Otherwise, follow these instructions:
+
* Run the auto-reconfiguration:
  
The Samba provision will have created a custom '/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update' configuration file. You need to include this file in your 'named.conf' to allow Samba/Kerberos DNS updates to automatically take place.
+
# samba_upgradedns --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ
 +
Reading domain information
 +
DNS accounts already exist
 +
No zone file /usr/local/samba/private/dns/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.zone
 +
DNS records will be automatically created
 +
DNS partitions already exist
 +
dns-DC1 account already exists
 +
See /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf for an example configuration include file for BIND
 +
and /usr/local/samba/private/named.txt for further documentation required for secure DNS updates
 +
Finished upgrading DNS
  
include "/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update";
+
* Restart the BIND service.
  
Be advised that if you include this file in Bind versions that don't support it, Bind will fail to start!
 
  
You additionally need to set two environment variables when using 9.7:
 
  
KEYTAB_FILE="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
 
KRB5_KTNAME="/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab"
 
export KEYTAB_FILE
 
export KRB5_KTNAME
 
  
These should be put in your settings file for Bind. On Debian based systems (including Ubuntu) this is in '/etc/default/bind9'. On RedHat and SuSE derived systems it is in '/etc/sysconfig/named'. Please refer to your distribution documentation for the correct location to set these environment variables. Strictly speaking, you only either need KEYTAB_FILE or KRB5_KTNAME, but which you need depends on your distribution, so it's easier to just set both.
 
  
The 'dns.keytab' must be readable by the bind server process:
+
== Debugging the BIND9_DLZ Module ==
  
# chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
+
To set a log level for the <code>BIND9_DLZ</code> module:
  
Normally, the provision/update should have setup these permissions for you automatically.
+
* Append the <code>-d</code> parameter and log level to the module in the <code>/usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf</code> file. For example:
  
Finally, you need to add the following to the options section of your named.conf:
+
database "dlopen .../bin/modules/bind9/dlz_bind9_9.so -d 3";
  
options {
+
* Stop the BIND service.
      [...]
 
      tkey-gssapi-credential "DNS/server.samdom.example.com";
 
      tkey-domain "SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM";
 
      [...]
 
};
 
  
The last part of the credential in the first line must match the dns name of the server, you have set up.
+
* Start BIND manually to display the debug out put and to capture the log output in the <code>/tmp/named.log</code> file:
  
 +
  # named -u named -f -g 2>&1 | tee /tmp/named.log
  
 +
: See the <code>named (8)</code> man page for details about the used parameters.
  
=== Testing/Debugging dynamic DNS updates ===
 
  
The way the automatic DNS update in Samba works, is that the provision will create a file '/usr/local/samba/private/dns_update_list', which contains a list of DNS entries that Samba will try to dynamically update at startup and every 10 minutes thereafter using the 'samba_dnsupdate' utility. Updates will only happen if the DNS entries do not already exist. Remember that you need the 'nsupdate' utility from Bind the distribution for all these to work.
 
  
If you want to test or debug this process, then please run as root:
 
  
# /usr/local/samba/sbin/samba_dnsupdate --verbose --all-names
 
  
The command line options specified will force an update of all records in the 'dns_update_list', as well as output detailed information on what is being done.
+
== New DNS Entries Are Not Resolvable ==
  
 +
If you create new DNS records in the directory and are not able to resolve them using the <code>nslookup</code>, <code>host</code> or other DNS lookup tools, the database hard links can got lost. This happens, for example, if you move the databases across mount points.
  
 +
To verify that the domain and forest partition as well as the <code>metadata.tdb</code> database are hard linked in both directories, run
  
 +
# ls -lai /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/
 +
17344368 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DDOMAINDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 +
17344370 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DFORESTDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 +
17344372 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  421888 11. Nov 17:53 metadata.tdb
 +
 +
# ls -lai /usr/local/samba/private/dns/sam.ldb.d/
 +
17344368 -rw-rw---- 2 root named 4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DDOMAINDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 +
17344370 -rw-rw---- 2 root named 4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DFORESTDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 +
17344372 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  421888 11. Nov 17:53 metadata.tdb
  
 +
The same files must have the same inode number in the first column of the output in the both directories. If they differ, the hard link got lost and Samba and BIND use separate database files and thus DNS updates in the directory are not resolveable through the BIND DNS server.
  
= Interaction with AppArmor or SELinux =
+
To auto-repair the hard linking, see [[#Reconfiguring_the_BIND9_DLZ_Back_End|Reconfiguring the BIND9_DLZ Back End]].
  
If you are getting an error from samba_dnsupdate and nsupdate '''return dns_tkey_negotiategss: TKEY is unacceptable''' try the following:
+
{{Imbox
 +
| type = note
 +
| text = The binddns dir was changed at Samba 4.8.0 from <code>/usr/local/samba/private/dns</code> to <code>/usr/local/samba/bind-dns/dns</code>.
 +
}}
  
If you are using AppArmor or SELinux, you have to ensure that the Bind process has read access to the following files:
 
* /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
* /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf
 
as well read-write access to the
 
* /usr/local/samba/private/dns/
 
directory and it's own zone file(s).
 
  
The Samba provision tries to setup the permissions correctly for these files, but you may find you need to make changes in your AppArmor or SELinux configuration if you are running either of those. If you are using AppArmor, then the 'aa-logprof' command may help you add any missing permissions you need to add after you start Samba and Bind for the first time after configuring them.
 
  
Permissions, SELinux Labeling and Policy
 
  
These instructions are intended for RHEL6, but may serve as a guide for other distributions/versions.
 
  
There is still more work to be done in regards of creating a Samba 4 specific SELinux policy but for now you should be able to have everything working without disabling SELinux.
+
== Updating the DNS Fails: NOTAUTH ==
  
For all the commands below, make sure you have set the following environment variable:
+
If BIND uses incorrect Kerberos settings on the Samba Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC), dynamic DNS updates fail. For example:
MYREALM="samdom.example.com"
 
  
Set Permissions (SELinux):
+
  # samba_dnsupdate --verbose
 
+
  ...
  chown named:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns
+
  update(nsupdate): SRV _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.samdom.example.com DC1.samdom.example.com 3268
  chgrp named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
+
  Calling nsupdate for SRV _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.samdom.example.com DC1.samdom.example.com 3268 (add)
chmod g+r /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
+
  Outgoing update query:
  chmod 775 /usr/local/samba/private/dns
+
  ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: UPDATE, status: NOERROR, id:      0
 
+
  ;; flags:; ZONE: 0, PREREQ: 0, UPDATE: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0
Label files (SELinux):
+
;; UPDATE SECTION:
 
+
  _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.samdom.example.com. 900 IN SRV 0 100 3268 DC1.samdom.example.com.
chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
+
chcon -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
+
update failed: NOTAUTH
chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
chcon -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
 
 
 
Set Label Persistence (SELinux):
 
 
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf
 
  semanage fcontext -a -t named_conf_t /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf.update
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone
 
semanage fcontext -a -t named_var_run_t /usr/local/samba/private/dns/${MYREALM}.zone.jnl
 
 
 
AppArmor Configuration :
 
 
 
Add the following to the end of /etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.sbin.named (create it if it doesn't already exist).
 
 
 
  # Samba4 DLZ and Active Directory Zones (default source installation)
 
  /usr/local/samba/lib/** rm,
 
/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab r,
 
  /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf r,
 
/usr/local/samba/private/dns/** rwk,
 
 
 
= Debugging Bind as Samba AD backend =
 
 
 
For enabling debugging on the Bind DLZ module, change the following line in '/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf' from
 
 
 
  database "dlopen .../bin/modules/bind9/dlz_bind9.so";
 
  
to
+
To solve the problem:
  
database "dlopen .../bin/modules/bind9/dlz_bind9.so -d 3";
+
* Verify that BIND configuration is set up correctly. For further details, see [[#Setting_up_Dynamic_DNS_Updates_Using_Kerberos|Setting up Dynamic DNS Updates Using Kerberos]].
  
If you are running Bind 9.9, then add the '-d 3' to the corresponding line.
+
* Recreate the BIND back end settings. For details, see [[#Reconfiguring_the_BIND9_DLZ_Back_End|Reconfiguring the BIND9_DLZ Back End]].
  
Stop Bind and run the service manually to capture logs:
 
  
  # /usr/sbin/named -u named -f -g 2>&1 | tee named.log
 
  
  
  
 +
== Updating the DNS Fails: dns_tkey_negotiategss: TKEY is unacceptable ==
  
 +
For details, see [[Dns_tkey_negotiategss:_TKEY_is_unacceptable|dns_tkey_negotiategss: TKEY is unacceptable]].
  
= Known issues and ways to fix/workaround =
 
  
== Chroot Bind ==
 
  
If you use Bind as Backend for your Samba AD, it must not run chroot, because it must be able to live access files and databases from your Samba installation.
 
  
To disable chroot for Bind, see the documentation for your distribution. In some, you can set
 
NAMED_RUN_CHROOTED="no"
 
in "/etc/sysconfig/named" and restart the service.
 
  
 +
== Reloading the Bind9 DNS Server ==
  
 +
If you <code>reload</code> Bind9, you are likely to see lines similar to these in the logs:
 +
named[29534]: samba_dlz: Ignoring duplicate zone
  
== Debian: Bind is listening on wrong IP address ==
+
You cannot <code>reload</code> Bind9 on a Samba AD DC, you must use <code>restart</code>.
 +
You should check if logrotate is using <code>reload</code> and change it if it is>
  
On Debian systems, the AD zone auto-generation might detect and use '127.0.1.1' as the domain controller's IP address. This will cause problems when trying to connect to the server from client machines. To fix this, you will need to adjust '/usr/local/samba/private/named.conf' by changing '127.0.1.1' to reflect the actual IP address of the server you're setting up.
 
  
  
  
== Debian Sid: Named does not start ==
 
  
On Debian Sid (Bind 9 package), '/etc/bind/named.conf.options' is missing and this will cause the named daemon to fail to start. To fix this either create an empty file, or comment out corresponding line in '/etc/bind/named.conf'. See your syslog messages for more information.
+
== Starting Bind9 DNS Server fails with "unhandled record type 65281" (Windows AD + Samba AD)==
  
 +
If when starting Bind9 DNS Server you see something like:
  
 +
samba_dlz: starting configure
 +
samba_dlz b9_format: unhandled record type 65281
 +
zone example.local/NONE: could not find NS and/or SOA records
 +
zone example.local/NONE: has 0 SOA records
 +
zone example.local/NONE: has no NS records
 +
samba_dlz: Failed to configure zone 'example.local'
  
== New added DNS entries are not resolvable ==
 
  
If you have problems with resolving new added DNS entries using the BIND9 DLZ interface, you maybe want to check the following:
+
This is likely caused because you have a Windows Server Active Directory that has WINS entries and you are joining it.
 +
To fix it, you have to disable WINS resolving in DNS of Windows Server DC direct search zones, restart Samba AD service, reload DNS config <code>samba_upgradedns --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ</code>, and then, restart Bind9 service.
  
Files in 'samba/private/dns/sam.ldb.d/' are hardlinks to 'samba/private/sam.ldb.d/'.
 
Maybe you've copied/moved it across filesystems and the hardlinking got lost
 
and you're now running with two different copies of the databases at the moment
 
(You can test this by adding a new DNS entry, e. g. by 'samba-tool'. If you can't
 
resolve it, check if the inodes differ).
 
  
If you 'ls -i' on the two folders, you should see, that the following files
 
have the same inodes (what indicates, that they are hard-linked):
 
 
# ls -lai .../samba/private/sam.ldb.d/
 
17344368 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DDOMAINDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 
17344370 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DFORESTDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 
17344372 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  421888 11. Nov 17:53 metadata.tdb
 
 
# ls -lai .../samba/private/dns/sam.ldb.d/
 
17344368 -rw-rw---- 2 root named 4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DDOMAINDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 
17344370 -rw-rw---- 2 root named 4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DFORESTDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
 
17344372 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  421888 11. Nov 17:53 metadata.tdb
 
  
If the files in the two folders have different inode numbers, then they
 
aren't hard-links. To fix this, run
 
  
# samba_upgradedns --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ
+
== I cannot find the Bind9 dns directory ==
  
This will recreate the DNS files with correct hard links and permissions.
+
You have searched for the dns folder <code>/usr/local/samba/bind-dns</code> but cannot find it. This directory was introduced at Samba version 4.8.0, but is only created if one of these three things has occurred:
  
Then restart Bind.
+
* You provisioned Samba with the '--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ' option.
  
 +
* You joined a DC with the '--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ' option.
  
 +
* You upgraded to Bind9 with 'samba_upgradedns' and the '--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ' option.
  
== DDNS updates not working ==
 
  
Check that the file '/etc/krb5.conf' is readable by Bind.
+
 
 +
----
 +
[[Category:Active Directory]]
 +
[[Category:DNS]]

Latest revision as of 10:46, 2 January 2020

Introduction

Samba provides support for using the BIND DNS server as the DNS back end on a Samba Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). The BIND9_DLZ back end is recommended for complex DNS setups that the Samba internal DNS server does not support.

The BIND9_DLZ module is a BIND9 plugin that accesses the Samba Active Directory (AD) database directly for registered zones. For this reason:

  • BIND must be installed on the same machine as the Samba AD domain controller (DC).
  • BIND must not run in a changed root environment.
  • zones are stored and replicated within the directory.



Software Architecture

Bind9 operates a threading model with the 'worker threads' concept. Each plugin has an associated mutex, so no two worker threads can call API functions provided by our plugin at once. Database access by the plugin is guarded by a fcntl lock.



Recommended Architecture

For high traffic environments, it is not recommended to use BIND9_DLZ-backed samba as a primary DNS server. Instead, use an external server that only forwards queries to BIND9_DLZ-backed samba DNS installations when the query is addressed to a zone managed by that node.



Setting up BIND

For details, see Setting up a BIND DNS Server.



Configuring the BIND9_DLZ Module

During the domain provisioning, join, or classic upgrade, the /usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf file has been created.

To enable the BIND9_DLZ module for your BIND version:

  • Add the following include statement to your BIND named.conf file:
include "/usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf";
  • Display the BIND version:
# named -v
BIND 9.9.4
  • Edit the /usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf file and uncomment the module for your BIND version. For example:
dlz "AD DNS Zone" {
    # For BIND 9.8
    # database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9.so";

    # For BIND 9.9
    database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9_9.so";

    # For BIND 9.10
    # database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9_10.so";
    
    # For BIND 9.11
    # database "dlopen /usr/local/samba/lib/bind9/dlz_bind9_11.so";
};
The following table shows the supported BIND versions and from which version of Samba the support started:
BIND Version Supported in Samba Version
BIND 9.11 Samba 4.5.2 and later
BIND 9.10 Samba 4.2 and later
BIND 9.9 Samba 4.0 and later
BIND 9.8 Samba 4.0 and later



Setting up BIND9 options and keytab for Kerberos

Samba needs to have some options set to allow Kerberos clients to automatically update the Active Directory (AD) zone managed by the BIND9_DLZ back end and improve performance.

To enable dynamic DNS updates using Kerberos and avoid returning NS records in all responses:

  • Add the following to the options {} section of your BIND named.conf file. For example:
options {
     [...]
     tkey-gssapi-keytab "/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab";
     minimal-responses yes;
};
  • If you provisioned or joined an AD forest or run the classic upgrade using a Samba version prior to 4.4.0, the BIND Kerberos key tab file was generated using wrong permissions. To fix, enable read access for the BIND user:
# chmod 640 /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
# chown root:named /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab
  • If you upgrade from a version earlier than 4.8.0, you should check the permissions on the /usr/local/samba/bind-dns directory, these should be:
# chmod 770 /usr/local/samba/bind-dns
# chown root:named /usr/local/samba/bind-dns
  • Verify that your /etc/krb5.conf Kerberos client configuration file is readable by your BIND user. For example:
# ls -l /etc/krb5.conf
-rw-r--r--. 1 root named 99  2. Sep 2014  /etc/krb5.conf
  • Verify that the nsupdate utility exists on your domain controller (DC):
# which nsupdate
/usr/bin/nsupdate
The nsupdate command is used to update the DNS. If the utility is missing, see you distribution's documentation how to identify the package containing the command and how to install.



AppArmor and SELinux Integration

For details, see BIND9_DLZ AppArmor and SELinux Integration.



Starting the BIND Service

  • Before you start the service, verify the BIND configuration:
# named-checkconf
If no output is shown, the BIND configuration is valid.
  • Start the BIND service.



Testing Dynamic DNS Updates

For details, see Testing Dynamic DNS Updates.



The Lockup Problem

When a BIND thread calls one of the BIND9_DLZ plugin API calls, execution can be blocked on database access calls if locks are out on the database at the time. Unfortunately, during that time, BIND will not be able to serve any queries, even external (non-samba) queries. Bind has a "-n" option that can increase the number of worker threads but testing has shown that increasing this number does not fix the problem, indicating that BIND's threading and queueing models are probably a bit broken. In small-scale environments this problem is unlikely to come up, but, in high-traffic environments, it may cause DNS outage. The only solution right now is to use an external DNS server that only forwards queries to BIND9_DLZ-backed samba DNS installations when the query is addressed to a zone managed by that node.



Troubleshooting

Reconfiguring the BIND9_DLZ Back End

Running the BIND9_DLZ back end setup automatically fixes several problems, such as recreating the Active Directory (AD) BIND DNS account (dns-*) and BIND Kerberos keytab file problems.

To fix the problem:

  • Run the auto-reconfiguration:
# samba_upgradedns --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ
Reading domain information
DNS accounts already exist
No zone file /usr/local/samba/private/dns/SAMDOM.EXAMPLE.COM.zone
DNS records will be automatically created
DNS partitions already exist
dns-DC1 account already exists
See /usr/local/samba/private/named.conf for an example configuration include file for BIND
and /usr/local/samba/private/named.txt for further documentation required for secure DNS updates
Finished upgrading DNS
  • Restart the BIND service.



Debugging the BIND9_DLZ Module

To set a log level for the BIND9_DLZ module:

  • Append the -d parameter and log level to the module in the /usr/local/samba/bind-dns/named.conf file. For example:
database "dlopen .../bin/modules/bind9/dlz_bind9_9.so -d 3";
  • Stop the BIND service.
  • Start BIND manually to display the debug out put and to capture the log output in the /tmp/named.log file:
 # named -u named -f -g 2>&1 | tee /tmp/named.log
See the named (8) man page for details about the used parameters.



New DNS Entries Are Not Resolvable

If you create new DNS records in the directory and are not able to resolve them using the nslookup, host or other DNS lookup tools, the database hard links can got lost. This happens, for example, if you move the databases across mount points.

To verify that the domain and forest partition as well as the metadata.tdb database are hard linked in both directories, run

# ls -lai /usr/local/samba/private/sam.ldb.d/
17344368 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DDOMAINDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
17344370 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DFORESTDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
17344372 -rw-rw---- 2 root named   421888 11. Nov 17:53 metadata.tdb

# ls -lai /usr/local/samba/private/dns/sam.ldb.d/
17344368 -rw-rw---- 2 root named 4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DDOMAINDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
17344370 -rw-rw---- 2 root named 4251648 11. Nov 18:27 DC%3DFORESTDNSZONES,DC%3DSAMBA,DC%3DEXAMPLE,DC%3DCOM.ldb
17344372 -rw-rw---- 2 root named  421888 11. Nov 17:53 metadata.tdb

The same files must have the same inode number in the first column of the output in the both directories. If they differ, the hard link got lost and Samba and BIND use separate database files and thus DNS updates in the directory are not resolveable through the BIND DNS server.

To auto-repair the hard linking, see Reconfiguring the BIND9_DLZ Back End.



Updating the DNS Fails: NOTAUTH

If BIND uses incorrect Kerberos settings on the Samba Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC), dynamic DNS updates fail. For example:

# samba_dnsupdate --verbose
...
update(nsupdate): SRV _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.samdom.example.com DC1.samdom.example.com 3268
Calling nsupdate for SRV _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.samdom.example.com DC1.samdom.example.com 3268 (add)
Outgoing update query:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: UPDATE, status: NOERROR, id:      0
;; flags:; ZONE: 0, PREREQ: 0, UPDATE: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0
;; UPDATE SECTION:
_gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.samdom.example.com. 900	IN SRV 0 100 3268 DC1.samdom.example.com.

update failed: NOTAUTH

To solve the problem:



Updating the DNS Fails: dns_tkey_negotiategss: TKEY is unacceptable

For details, see dns_tkey_negotiategss: TKEY is unacceptable.



Reloading the Bind9 DNS Server

If you reload Bind9, you are likely to see lines similar to these in the logs:

named[29534]: samba_dlz: Ignoring duplicate zone

You cannot reload Bind9 on a Samba AD DC, you must use restart. You should check if logrotate is using reload and change it if it is>



Starting Bind9 DNS Server fails with "unhandled record type 65281" (Windows AD + Samba AD)

If when starting Bind9 DNS Server you see something like:

samba_dlz: starting configure
samba_dlz b9_format: unhandled record type 65281
zone example.local/NONE: could not find NS and/or SOA records
zone example.local/NONE: has 0 SOA records
zone example.local/NONE: has no NS records
samba_dlz: Failed to configure zone 'example.local'


This is likely caused because you have a Windows Server Active Directory that has WINS entries and you are joining it. To fix it, you have to disable WINS resolving in DNS of Windows Server DC direct search zones, restart Samba AD service, reload DNS config samba_upgradedns --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ, and then, restart Bind9 service.



I cannot find the Bind9 dns directory

You have searched for the dns folder /usr/local/samba/bind-dns but cannot find it. This directory was introduced at Samba version 4.8.0, but is only created if one of these three things has occurred:

  • You provisioned Samba with the '--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ' option.
  • You joined a DC with the '--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ' option.
  • You upgraded to Bind9 with 'samba_upgradedns' and the '--dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ' option.